Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a worldwide epidemic, and innovative therapies to combat the virus are needed. Developing a host-oriented antiviral strategy capable of targeting the biomolecules that are directly or indirectly required for viral replication may provide advantages over traditional virus-centric approaches. We used quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS in conjunction with bioinformatic analyses to identify host proteins, with an emphasis on nucleic acid binding and regulatory proteins, which could serve as candidates in the development of host-oriented antiretroviral strategies. Using SWATH-MS, we identified and quantified the expression of 3608 proteins in uninfected and HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Of these 3608 proteins, 420 were significantly altered upon HIV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses revealed functional enrichment for RNA binding and processing as well as transcription regulation. Our findings highlight a novel subset of proteins and processes that are involved in the host response to HIV-1 infection. In addition, we provide an original and transparent methodology for the analysis of label-free quantitative proteomics data generated by SWATH-MS that can be readily adapted to other biological systems.
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