Protein serine/threonine phosphotase-1 is essential in governing normal development of vertebrate eye

W. B. Liu, Q. Yan, F. Y. Liu, X. C. Tang, H. G. Chen, J. Liu, L. Nie, X. W. Zhang, W. K. Ji, X. H. Hu, W. F. Hu, Z. Woodward, K. L. Wu, M. X. Wu, X. L. Liu, L. X. Luo, M. B. Yu, Y. Z. Liu, S. J. Liu, D. W.C. Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Protein serine/threonine phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is one of the key enzymes responsible for dephosphorylation in vertebrates. Protein dephosphorylation via PP-1 is implicated in many different biological processes including gene expression, cell cycle control, transformation, neuronal transmission, apoptosis, autophage and senescence. However, whether PP-1 directly controls animal development remains to be investigated. Here, we present direct evidence to show that PP-1 plays an essential role in regulating eye development of vertebrates. Using goldfish as a model system, we have shown the following novel results. First, inhibition of PP-1 activity leads to death of a majority of the treated embryos, and the survived embryos displayed severe phenotype in the eye. Second, knockdown of each catalytic subunit of PP-1 with morpholino oligomers leads to partial (PP-lγ knockdown) or complete (PP-lγ or PP-lγ knockdown) death of the injected embryos. The survived embryos from PP-1γ knockdown displayed clear retardation in lens differentiation. Finally, overexpression of each subunit of PP-1 also causes death of majority of the injected embryos and leads to abnormal development of goldfish eye. Mechanistically, Pax-6 is one of the major downstream targets mediating the effects of PP-1 function since the eye phenotype in Pax-6 knockdown fish is similar to that derived from overexpression of PP-1. Together, our results for the first time provide direct evidence that protein phosphatase-1 plays a key role in governing normal eye formation during goldfish development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1361-1371
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Molecular Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 3 2012



  • Cataract
  • Differentiation
  • Eye development
  • Lens
  • PP-1
  • PP-1α/β/γ
  • Protein phosphatases
  • Retina
  • Retina degeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Liu, W. B., Yan, Q., Liu, F. Y., Tang, X. C., Chen, H. G., Liu, J., Nie, L., Zhang, X. W., Ji, W. K., Hu, X. H., Hu, W. F., Woodward, Z., Wu, K. L., Wu, M. X., Liu, X. L., Luo, L. X., Yu, M. B., Liu, Y. Z., Liu, S. J., & Li, D. W. C. (2012). Protein serine/threonine phosphotase-1 is essential in governing normal development of vertebrate eye. Current Molecular Medicine, 12(10), 1361-1371.