The use of sensitive and specific imaging techniques for accurate initial staging and evaluation of response to therapy in patients with lymphoma is essential for their optimal management. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a powerful imaging tool and is being routinely used in staging, response evaluation, and posttreatment surveillance in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. PET/CT is currently widely used in clinical practice, but the established clinical benefit is currently restricted to the posttreatment evaluation of Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Although used in other histologic subtypes and in other clinical situations including response assessment, its impact on patient outcome remains to be demonstrated. We performed a literature search of PubMed from 1999 to 2011 using the following keywords: PET scan, FDG-PET, PET/CT, lymphoma. This review addresses the challenges and controversies in the use of PET/CT scans in the management of patients with lymphoma.
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