Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters and riverine sediments of the Hooghly and Brahmaputra Rivers in the Eastern and Northeastern India

Sanjenbam Nirmala Khuman, Paromita Chakraborty, Alessandra Cincinelli, Daniel D Snow, Bhupander Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were analyzed in surface waters and riverine sediments of Brahmaputra and Hooghly Rivers, along urban-suburban-rural transects. ∑16 PAHs concentrations were higher in Hooghly riverine sediment (HRS) (Avg, 445 ng g−1) than Brahmaputra riverine sediment (BRS) (Avg, 169 ng g−1) dominated by 4-ring PAHs. In contrast, PAHs concentrations in surface water of Brahmaputra River (BRW) (Avg, 4.04 μg L−1) were comparable with Hooghly River (HRW) (Avg, 4.8 μg L−1), with dominance by 3-ring PAHs. Toxic PAHs (BaA, Chr, BbF, BkF, BaP, InP and DBA) were dominant in sub-urban transect of HRS (Avg, 387 ng g−1) and BRS (Avg, 14 ng g−1). Diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) and ring wise composition suggested combustion as the main PAHs source in these riverine belts. In BRS, higher PAHs in suburban and rural transects were attributed to incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning. In HRS, >85% of high molecular weight PAHs were found in the industrial areas of the suburban transect possibly associated with the discharge of industrial effluents. Harbor and port activities were other major contributors of HMW-PAHs in Hooghly riverine system. Carcinogenic potency estimated in terms of toxic equivalent (TEQ) was several folds higher in HRS (Avg, 106 ng TEQ g−1) compared with BRS (Avg, 2.5 ng TEQ g−1). Mostly low molecular weight PAHs are likely posing a risk to fishes in both the rivers. Risk on edible fish species may be a matter of concern considering the regular consumption of fishes in this region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)751-760
Number of pages10
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume636
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2018

Fingerprint

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Surface waters
PAH
Sediments
Rivers
surface water
river
sediment
Poisons
transect
Fish
fish
combustion
Molecular weight
Environmental Protection Agency
Ports and harbors
biomass burning
Fossil fuels
Principal component analysis

Keywords

  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Sediment
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters and riverine sediments of the Hooghly and Brahmaputra Rivers in the Eastern and Northeastern India. / Khuman, Sanjenbam Nirmala; Chakraborty, Paromita; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Snow, Daniel D; Kumar, Bhupander.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 636, 15.09.2018, p. 751-760.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khuman, Sanjenbam Nirmala ; Chakraborty, Paromita ; Cincinelli, Alessandra ; Snow, Daniel D ; Kumar, Bhupander. / Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters and riverine sediments of the Hooghly and Brahmaputra Rivers in the Eastern and Northeastern India. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2018 ; Vol. 636. pp. 751-760.
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abstract = "Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were analyzed in surface waters and riverine sediments of Brahmaputra and Hooghly Rivers, along urban-suburban-rural transects. ∑16 PAHs concentrations were higher in Hooghly riverine sediment (HRS) (Avg, 445 ng g−1) than Brahmaputra riverine sediment (BRS) (Avg, 169 ng g−1) dominated by 4-ring PAHs. In contrast, PAHs concentrations in surface water of Brahmaputra River (BRW) (Avg, 4.04 μg L−1) were comparable with Hooghly River (HRW) (Avg, 4.8 μg L−1), with dominance by 3-ring PAHs. Toxic PAHs (BaA, Chr, BbF, BkF, BaP, InP and DBA) were dominant in sub-urban transect of HRS (Avg, 387 ng g−1) and BRS (Avg, 14 ng g−1). Diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) and ring wise composition suggested combustion as the main PAHs source in these riverine belts. In BRS, higher PAHs in suburban and rural transects were attributed to incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning. In HRS, >85{\%} of high molecular weight PAHs were found in the industrial areas of the suburban transect possibly associated with the discharge of industrial effluents. Harbor and port activities were other major contributors of HMW-PAHs in Hooghly riverine system. Carcinogenic potency estimated in terms of toxic equivalent (TEQ) was several folds higher in HRS (Avg, 106 ng TEQ g−1) compared with BRS (Avg, 2.5 ng TEQ g−1). Mostly low molecular weight PAHs are likely posing a risk to fishes in both the rivers. Risk on edible fish species may be a matter of concern considering the regular consumption of fishes in this region.",
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AB - Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were analyzed in surface waters and riverine sediments of Brahmaputra and Hooghly Rivers, along urban-suburban-rural transects. ∑16 PAHs concentrations were higher in Hooghly riverine sediment (HRS) (Avg, 445 ng g−1) than Brahmaputra riverine sediment (BRS) (Avg, 169 ng g−1) dominated by 4-ring PAHs. In contrast, PAHs concentrations in surface water of Brahmaputra River (BRW) (Avg, 4.04 μg L−1) were comparable with Hooghly River (HRW) (Avg, 4.8 μg L−1), with dominance by 3-ring PAHs. Toxic PAHs (BaA, Chr, BbF, BkF, BaP, InP and DBA) were dominant in sub-urban transect of HRS (Avg, 387 ng g−1) and BRS (Avg, 14 ng g−1). Diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) and ring wise composition suggested combustion as the main PAHs source in these riverine belts. In BRS, higher PAHs in suburban and rural transects were attributed to incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning. In HRS, >85% of high molecular weight PAHs were found in the industrial areas of the suburban transect possibly associated with the discharge of industrial effluents. Harbor and port activities were other major contributors of HMW-PAHs in Hooghly riverine system. Carcinogenic potency estimated in terms of toxic equivalent (TEQ) was several folds higher in HRS (Avg, 106 ng TEQ g−1) compared with BRS (Avg, 2.5 ng TEQ g−1). Mostly low molecular weight PAHs are likely posing a risk to fishes in both the rivers. Risk on edible fish species may be a matter of concern considering the regular consumption of fishes in this region.

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