Apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation are hallmarks of cisplatin nephrotoxicity; however, the role and mechanisms of necrosis and inflammation remains undefined. As poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibition or its gene deletion is renoprotective in several renal disease models, we tested whether its activation may be involved in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Parp1 deficiency was found to reduce cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress, and tubular necrosis, but not apoptosis. Moreover, neutrophil infiltration, activation of nuclear factor-B, c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and upregulation of proinflammatory genes were all abrogated by Parp1 deficiency. Using proximal tubule epithelial cells isolated from Parp1-deficient and wild-type mice and pharmacological inhibitors, we found evidence for a PARP1/Toll-like receptor 4/p38/tumor necrosis factor-α axis following cisplatin injury. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 protected against cisplatin-induced kidney structural/functional damage and inflammation. Thus, our findings suggest that PARP1 activation is a primary signal and its inhibition/loss protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Targeting PARP1 may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
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