Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases: Opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy

Paul O. Gubbins, Michael E. Klepser, Allison Dering-Anderson, Karri A. Bauer, Kristin M. Darin, Stephanie Klepser, Kathryn R. Matthias, Kimberly K Scarsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. Data sources: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. Data synthesis: POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. Conclusion: POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-171
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Volume54
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Community Pharmacy Services
Pharmacies
Communicable Diseases
Clinical laboratories
Pharmacists
Testing
Clinical Laboratory Services
Education
Hospital Pharmacy Services
Medication Therapy Management
Drug therapy
Information Storage and Retrieval
Point-of-Care Testing
Routine Diagnostic Tests
PubMed
Websites
Screening

Keywords

  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments
  • Collaborative practice
  • Laws and legislation
  • Pharmacy services
  • Rapid diagnostic tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases : Opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy. / Gubbins, Paul O.; Klepser, Michael E.; Dering-Anderson, Allison; Bauer, Karri A.; Darin, Kristin M.; Klepser, Stephanie; Matthias, Kathryn R.; Scarsi, Kimberly K.

In: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, Vol. 54, No. 2, 01.01.2014, p. 163-171.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gubbins, Paul O. ; Klepser, Michael E. ; Dering-Anderson, Allison ; Bauer, Karri A. ; Darin, Kristin M. ; Klepser, Stephanie ; Matthias, Kathryn R. ; Scarsi, Kimberly K. / Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases : Opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy. In: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2014 ; Vol. 54, No. 2. pp. 163-171.
@article{84ba866e0bd3448885ef4c53285038d5,
title = "Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases: Opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy",
abstract = "Objectives: To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. Data sources: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. Data synthesis: POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20{\%} of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. Conclusion: POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.",
keywords = "Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, Collaborative practice, Laws and legislation, Pharmacy services, Rapid diagnostic tests",
author = "Gubbins, {Paul O.} and Klepser, {Michael E.} and Allison Dering-Anderson and Bauer, {Karri A.} and Darin, {Kristin M.} and Stephanie Klepser and Matthias, {Kathryn R.} and Scarsi, {Kimberly K}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13167",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "54",
pages = "163--171",
journal = "Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA",
issn = "1544-3191",
publisher = "American Pharmacists Association",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases

T2 - Opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy

AU - Gubbins, Paul O.

AU - Klepser, Michael E.

AU - Dering-Anderson, Allison

AU - Bauer, Karri A.

AU - Darin, Kristin M.

AU - Klepser, Stephanie

AU - Matthias, Kathryn R.

AU - Scarsi, Kimberly K

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Objectives: To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. Data sources: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. Data synthesis: POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. Conclusion: POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.

AB - Objectives: To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. Data sources: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. Data synthesis: POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. Conclusion: POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.

KW - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments

KW - Collaborative practice

KW - Laws and legislation

KW - Pharmacy services

KW - Rapid diagnostic tests

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84898841907&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84898841907&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13167

DO - 10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13167

M3 - Article

C2 - 24632931

AN - SCOPUS:84898841907

VL - 54

SP - 163

EP - 171

JO - Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA

JF - Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA

SN - 1544-3191

IS - 2

ER -