Pluronics-Formulated farnesol promotes efficient killing and demonstrates novel interactions with streptococcus mutans biofilms

Austin B. Mogen, Fu Chen, Sang Joon Ahn, Robert A. Burne, Dong Wang, Kelly C. Rice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Streptococcus mutans is the primary causative agent of dental caries, one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States. Previously published studies have shown that Pluronicbased tooth-binding micelles carrying hydrophobic antimicrobials are extremely effective at inhibiting S. mutans biofilm growth on hydroxyapatite (HA). Interestingly, these studies also demonstrated that non-binding micelles (NBM) carrying antimicrobial also had an inhibitory effect, leading to the hypothesis that the Pluronic micelles themselves may interact with the biofilm. To explore this potential interaction, three different S. mutans strains were each grown as biofilm in tissue culture plates, either untreated or supplemented with NBM alone (P85), NBM containing farnesol (P85F), or farnesol alone (F). In each tested S. mutans strain, biomass was significantly decreased (SNK test, p < 0.05) in the P85F and F biofilms relative to untreated biofilms. Furthermore, the P85F biofilms formed large towers containing dead cells that were not observed in the other treatment conditions. Tower formation appeared to be specific to formulated farnesol, as this phenomenon was not observed in S. mutans biofilms grown with NBM containing triclosan. Parallel CFU/ml determinations revealed that biofilm growth in the presence of P85F resulted in a 3-log reduction in viability, whereas F decreased viability by less than 1-log. Wild-type biofilms grown in the absence of sucrose or gtfBC mutant biofilms grown in the presence of sucrose did not form towers. However, increased cell killing with P85F was still observed, suggesting that cell killing is independent of tower formation. Finally, repeated treatment of pre-formed biofilms with P85F was able to elicit a 2-log reduction in viability, whereas parallel treatment with F alone only reduced viability by 0.5-log. Collectively, these results suggest that Pluronics-formulated farnesol induces alterations in biofilm architecture, presumably via interaction with the sucrose-dependent biofilm matrix, and may be a viable treatment option in the prevention and treatment of pathogenic plaque biofilms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0133886
JournalPloS one
Volume10
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 29 2015

Fingerprint

Farnesol
farnesol
Streptococcus mutans
Poloxamer
Biofilms
biofilm
Micelles
micelles
Towers
viability
Sucrose
sucrose
anti-infective agents
Cells
Triclosan
dental caries
Tissue culture
hydroxyapatite
Dental Caries
cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Pluronics-Formulated farnesol promotes efficient killing and demonstrates novel interactions with streptococcus mutans biofilms. / Mogen, Austin B.; Chen, Fu; Ahn, Sang Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Wang, Dong; Rice, Kelly C.

In: PloS one, Vol. 10, No. 7, e0133886, 29.07.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mogen, Austin B. ; Chen, Fu ; Ahn, Sang Joon ; Burne, Robert A. ; Wang, Dong ; Rice, Kelly C. / Pluronics-Formulated farnesol promotes efficient killing and demonstrates novel interactions with streptococcus mutans biofilms. In: PloS one. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 7.
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abstract = "Streptococcus mutans is the primary causative agent of dental caries, one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States. Previously published studies have shown that Pluronicbased tooth-binding micelles carrying hydrophobic antimicrobials are extremely effective at inhibiting S. mutans biofilm growth on hydroxyapatite (HA). Interestingly, these studies also demonstrated that non-binding micelles (NBM) carrying antimicrobial also had an inhibitory effect, leading to the hypothesis that the Pluronic micelles themselves may interact with the biofilm. To explore this potential interaction, three different S. mutans strains were each grown as biofilm in tissue culture plates, either untreated or supplemented with NBM alone (P85), NBM containing farnesol (P85F), or farnesol alone (F). In each tested S. mutans strain, biomass was significantly decreased (SNK test, p < 0.05) in the P85F and F biofilms relative to untreated biofilms. Furthermore, the P85F biofilms formed large towers containing dead cells that were not observed in the other treatment conditions. Tower formation appeared to be specific to formulated farnesol, as this phenomenon was not observed in S. mutans biofilms grown with NBM containing triclosan. Parallel CFU/ml determinations revealed that biofilm growth in the presence of P85F resulted in a 3-log reduction in viability, whereas F decreased viability by less than 1-log. Wild-type biofilms grown in the absence of sucrose or gtfBC mutant biofilms grown in the presence of sucrose did not form towers. However, increased cell killing with P85F was still observed, suggesting that cell killing is independent of tower formation. Finally, repeated treatment of pre-formed biofilms with P85F was able to elicit a 2-log reduction in viability, whereas parallel treatment with F alone only reduced viability by 0.5-log. Collectively, these results suggest that Pluronics-formulated farnesol induces alterations in biofilm architecture, presumably via interaction with the sucrose-dependent biofilm matrix, and may be a viable treatment option in the prevention and treatment of pathogenic plaque biofilms.",
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