Causal inference—the process of deciding whether two incoming signals come from the same source—is an important step in audiovisual (AV) speech perception. This research explored causal inference and perception of incongruent AV English consonants. Nine adults were presented auditory, visual, congruent AV, and incongruent AV consonant-vowel syllables. Incongruent AV stimuli included auditory and visual syllables with matched vowels, but mismatched consonants. Open-set responses were collected. For most incongruent syllables, participants were aware of the mismatch between auditory and visual signals (59.04%) or reported the auditory syllable (33.73%). Otherwise, participants reported the visual syllable (1.13%) or some other syllable (6.11%). Statistical analyses were used to assess whether visual distinctiveness and place, voice, and manner features predicted responses. Mismatch responses occurred more when the auditory and visual consonants were visually distinct, when place and manner differed across auditory and visual consonants, and for consonants with high visual accuracy. Auditory responses occurred more when the auditory and visual consonants were visually similar, when place and manner were the same across auditory and visual stimuli, and with consonants produced further back in the mouth. Visual responses occurred more when voicing and manner were the same across auditory and visual stimuli, and for front and middle consonants. Other responses were variable, but typically matched the visual place, auditory voice, and auditory manner of the input. Overall, results indicate that causal inference and incongruent AV consonant perception depend on salience and reliability of auditory and visual inputs and degree of redundancy between auditory and visual inputs. A parameter-free computational model of incongruent AV speech perception based on unimodal confusions, with a causal inference rule, was applied. Data from the current study present an opportunity to test and improve the generalizability of current AV speech integration models.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)