Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda

Moses Ocan, Freddie Bwanga, Godfrey S. Bbosa, Danstan Bagenda, Paul Waako, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng, Celestino Obua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7%) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%), amoxicillin (21.7%), metronidazole (12.3%), and cotrimoxazole (11.6%). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5%) and drug shop attendants (57.6%). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2%) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76%) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%), drug resistance (33.2%), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge of associated risks, use of self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in management of disease symptoms is a common practice in post-conflict northern Uganda.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere92323
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 21 2014

Fingerprint

Self Medication
Uganda
drug therapy
drugs
anti-infective agents
Pharmaceutical Preparations
signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
households
Anti-Infective Agents
Drug Costs
Prescription Drugs
Health Facilities
Amoxicillin
Metronidazole
Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Trimethoprim
Appetite
Self Care
metronidazole
Disease Management
headache

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Ocan, M., Bwanga, F., Bbosa, G. S., Bagenda, D., Waako, P., Ogwal-Okeng, J., & Obua, C. (2014). Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda. PloS one, 9(3), [e92323]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092323

Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda. / Ocan, Moses; Bwanga, Freddie; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Bagenda, Danstan; Waako, Paul; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Obua, Celestino.

In: PloS one, Vol. 9, No. 3, e92323, 21.03.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ocan, M, Bwanga, F, Bbosa, GS, Bagenda, D, Waako, P, Ogwal-Okeng, J & Obua, C 2014, 'Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda', PloS one, vol. 9, no. 3, e92323. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092323
Ocan M, Bwanga F, Bbosa GS, Bagenda D, Waako P, Ogwal-Okeng J et al. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda. PloS one. 2014 Mar 21;9(3). e92323. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092323
Ocan, Moses ; Bwanga, Freddie ; Bbosa, Godfrey S. ; Bagenda, Danstan ; Waako, Paul ; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper ; Obua, Celestino. / Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda. In: PloS one. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 3.
@article{4fb6556510c643959c0681366d20dd26,
title = "Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda",
abstract = "Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95{\%} level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7{\%}) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3{\%}). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3{\%}), amoxicillin (21.7{\%}), metronidazole (12.3{\%}), and cotrimoxazole (11.6{\%}). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5{\%}) and drug shop attendants (57.6{\%}). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95{\%}CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95{\%}CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2{\%}) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76{\%}) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1{\%}), drug resistance (33.2{\%}), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5{\%}). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge of associated risks, use of self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in management of disease symptoms is a common practice in post-conflict northern Uganda.",
author = "Moses Ocan and Freddie Bwanga and Bbosa, {Godfrey S.} and Danstan Bagenda and Paul Waako and Jasper Ogwal-Okeng and Celestino Obua",
year = "2014",
month = "3",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0092323",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda

AU - Ocan, Moses

AU - Bwanga, Freddie

AU - Bbosa, Godfrey S.

AU - Bagenda, Danstan

AU - Waako, Paul

AU - Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper

AU - Obua, Celestino

PY - 2014/3/21

Y1 - 2014/3/21

N2 - Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7%) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%), amoxicillin (21.7%), metronidazole (12.3%), and cotrimoxazole (11.6%). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5%) and drug shop attendants (57.6%). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2%) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76%) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%), drug resistance (33.2%), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge of associated risks, use of self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in management of disease symptoms is a common practice in post-conflict northern Uganda.

AB - Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7%) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%), amoxicillin (21.7%), metronidazole (12.3%), and cotrimoxazole (11.6%). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5%) and drug shop attendants (57.6%). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2%) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76%) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%), drug resistance (33.2%), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge of associated risks, use of self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in management of disease symptoms is a common practice in post-conflict northern Uganda.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84899083766&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84899083766&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0092323

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0092323

M3 - Article

C2 - 24658124

AN - SCOPUS:84899083766

VL - 9

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 3

M1 - e92323

ER -