Patient with anomalous skin pigmentation expands the phenotype of ARID2 loss-of-function disorder, a SWI/SNF-related intellectual disability

Rohan Khazanchi, Carey A. Ronspies, Scott C Smith, Lois J Starr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

ARID2 loss-of-function is associated with a rare genetic disorder characterized in 14 reported patients to date. ARID2 encodes a member of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable chromatin remodeling complex. Other genes encoding subunits of this complex, such as ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCA2, are mutated in association with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) phenotypes. Previously reported ARID2 mutations manifested clinically with a CSS-like phenotype including intellectual disability, coarsened facial features, fifth toenail hypoplasia, and other recognizable dysmorphisms. However, heterogeneity exists between previously reported patients with some patients showing more overlapping features with NCBRS. Herein, we present a patient with a novel disease-causing ARID2 loss-of-function mutation. His clinical features included intellectual disability, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, toenail hypoplasia, ADHD, short stature, and delayed development consistent with prior reports. Our patient also presented with previously unreported clinical findings including ophthalmologic involvement, persistent fetal fingertip and toetip pads, and diffuse hyperpigmentary and hypopigmentary changes sparing his face, palms, and soles. The anomalous skin findings are particularly of interest given prior literature outlining the role of ARID2 in melanocyte homeostasis and melanoma. This clinical report and review of the literature is further affirming of the characteristic symptoms and expands the phenotype of this newly described and rare syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)808-812
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Volume179
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

Skin Pigmentation
Intellectual Disability
Phenotype
Nails
Mutation
Inborn Genetic Diseases
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Melanocytes
Sucrose
Melanoma
Homeostasis
Skin
Genes

Keywords

  • ARID2
  • Coffin-Siris syndrome
  • Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
  • SWI/SNF complex
  • melanoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

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title = "Patient with anomalous skin pigmentation expands the phenotype of ARID2 loss-of-function disorder, a SWI/SNF-related intellectual disability",
abstract = "ARID2 loss-of-function is associated with a rare genetic disorder characterized in 14 reported patients to date. ARID2 encodes a member of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable chromatin remodeling complex. Other genes encoding subunits of this complex, such as ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCA2, are mutated in association with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) phenotypes. Previously reported ARID2 mutations manifested clinically with a CSS-like phenotype including intellectual disability, coarsened facial features, fifth toenail hypoplasia, and other recognizable dysmorphisms. However, heterogeneity exists between previously reported patients with some patients showing more overlapping features with NCBRS. Herein, we present a patient with a novel disease-causing ARID2 loss-of-function mutation. His clinical features included intellectual disability, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, toenail hypoplasia, ADHD, short stature, and delayed development consistent with prior reports. Our patient also presented with previously unreported clinical findings including ophthalmologic involvement, persistent fetal fingertip and toetip pads, and diffuse hyperpigmentary and hypopigmentary changes sparing his face, palms, and soles. The anomalous skin findings are particularly of interest given prior literature outlining the role of ARID2 in melanocyte homeostasis and melanoma. This clinical report and review of the literature is further affirming of the characteristic symptoms and expands the phenotype of this newly described and rare syndrome.",
keywords = "ARID2, Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, SWI/SNF complex, melanoma",
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AU - Khazanchi, Rohan

AU - Ronspies, Carey A.

AU - Smith, Scott C

AU - Starr, Lois J

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N2 - ARID2 loss-of-function is associated with a rare genetic disorder characterized in 14 reported patients to date. ARID2 encodes a member of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable chromatin remodeling complex. Other genes encoding subunits of this complex, such as ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCA2, are mutated in association with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) phenotypes. Previously reported ARID2 mutations manifested clinically with a CSS-like phenotype including intellectual disability, coarsened facial features, fifth toenail hypoplasia, and other recognizable dysmorphisms. However, heterogeneity exists between previously reported patients with some patients showing more overlapping features with NCBRS. Herein, we present a patient with a novel disease-causing ARID2 loss-of-function mutation. His clinical features included intellectual disability, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, toenail hypoplasia, ADHD, short stature, and delayed development consistent with prior reports. Our patient also presented with previously unreported clinical findings including ophthalmologic involvement, persistent fetal fingertip and toetip pads, and diffuse hyperpigmentary and hypopigmentary changes sparing his face, palms, and soles. The anomalous skin findings are particularly of interest given prior literature outlining the role of ARID2 in melanocyte homeostasis and melanoma. This clinical report and review of the literature is further affirming of the characteristic symptoms and expands the phenotype of this newly described and rare syndrome.

AB - ARID2 loss-of-function is associated with a rare genetic disorder characterized in 14 reported patients to date. ARID2 encodes a member of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable chromatin remodeling complex. Other genes encoding subunits of this complex, such as ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCA2, are mutated in association with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) phenotypes. Previously reported ARID2 mutations manifested clinically with a CSS-like phenotype including intellectual disability, coarsened facial features, fifth toenail hypoplasia, and other recognizable dysmorphisms. However, heterogeneity exists between previously reported patients with some patients showing more overlapping features with NCBRS. Herein, we present a patient with a novel disease-causing ARID2 loss-of-function mutation. His clinical features included intellectual disability, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, toenail hypoplasia, ADHD, short stature, and delayed development consistent with prior reports. Our patient also presented with previously unreported clinical findings including ophthalmologic involvement, persistent fetal fingertip and toetip pads, and diffuse hyperpigmentary and hypopigmentary changes sparing his face, palms, and soles. The anomalous skin findings are particularly of interest given prior literature outlining the role of ARID2 in melanocyte homeostasis and melanoma. This clinical report and review of the literature is further affirming of the characteristic symptoms and expands the phenotype of this newly described and rare syndrome.

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