P wave analysis with wavelets identifies hypertensive patients at risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation: A case-control study and 1 year follow-up

George Dakos, Dimitrios Konstantinou, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis, Ioanna Chouvarda, Dimitrios Filos, Stylianos Paraskevaidis, Lilian Mantziari, Nicos Maglaveras, Haralambos Karvounis, Vassilios Vassilikos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Aims Hypertension is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, reliable non-invasive tools to assess AF risk in hypertensive patients are lacking. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of P wave wavelet analysis in predicting AF risk recurrence in a hypertensive cohort. Methods We studied 37 hypertensive patients who presented with an AF episode for the first time and 37 age- and sex-matched hypertensive controls without AF. P wave duration and energy variables were measured for each subject [i.e. mean and max P wave energy along horizontal (x), coronal (y) and sagittal (z) axes in low, intermediate and high frequency bands]. AF-free survival was assessed over a follow-up of 12.1 ± 0.4 months. Results P wave duration (Pdurz) and mean P wave energy in the intermediate frequency band across sagittal axis (mean2z) were independently associated with baseline AF status (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively). Based on optimal cut-off points, four groups were formed: Pdurz < 83.2 ms/mean2z < 6.2 μV2 (n = 23), Pdurz < 83.2 ms/mean2z ≥6.2 μV2 (n = 10), Pdurz ≥83.2 ms/mean2z < 6.2 μV2 (n = 22) and Pdurz ≥83.2 ms/mean2z ≥6.2 μV2 (n = 19). AF-free survival decreased (Log Rank p < 0.0001) from low risk (Pdurz < 83.2 ms/mean2z < 6.2 μV2) to high-risk group (Pdurz ≥83.2 ms/mean2z ≥6.2 μV2). Patients presenting with longer and higher energy P waves were at 18 times higher AF risk compared to those with neither (OR: 17.6, 95% CI: 3.7-84.3) even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension duration, left atrial size, beta-blocker, ACEi/ARBs and statin therapy. Conclusions P wave temporal and energy characteristics extracted using wavelet analysis can potentially serve as screening tool to identify hypertensive patients at risk of AF recurrence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-852
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015



  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Hypertension
  • Orthogonal ECG
  • P wave wavelet analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this