Overt and relational victimization in Latinos and European Americans: Measurement equivalence across ethnicity, gender, and grade level in early adolescent groups

Eric S. Buhs, Meredith McGinley, Michael D. Toland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations


This study examined the factorial invariance and construct validity equivalence of a self-report of victimization and exclusion (SVEX) for Latino and European American early adolescent participants (fifth and sixth grades; mean age 11.3).The instrument included an expanded set of relational victimization items that more thoroughly tapped exclusion behaviors relevant to developmental and cross-cultural use. Confirmatory factor analyses techniques demonstrated acceptable (partial) factorial invariance across ethnic groups, fifth and sixth graders, and across gender. Linkages between the SVEX scores, peer nominations, internalizing indices, and three demographic variables also supported construct validity equivalence for the SVEX. Findings supported a two-factor model similar to that of Crick and colleagues (e.g., Crick & Grotpeter, 1995) and suggested that the instrument provided an acceptable level of equivalence for overt and relational victimization forms across these groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-197
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Early Adolescence
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2010



  • Ethnicity
  • Exclusion
  • Invariance
  • Victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

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