Overexpression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induces metastasis of human prostate cancer cells through the FAK-RhoA signaling pathway

S. Senapati, S. Rachagani, K. Chaudhary, S. L. Johansson, R. K. Singh, S. K. Batra

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82 Scopus citations


An elevated level of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is reported in the sera of patients with metastatic prostate cancer compared with that of benign diseases and healthy adults. We investigated the mechanistic role of MIC-1 overexpression in the metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Our study showed a progressive increase in secretory MIC-1 production correlated with the increase in the metastatic potential of PC-3 and LNPCa prostate cancer metastatic variants. Further, the in vitro studies using loss-and gain-of-function approaches showed that ectopic overexpression of MIC-1 (PC-3-MIC-1) and forced downregulation of MIC-1(PC-3M-siMIC-1) enhanced and reduced the motility and invasiveness of these cells, respectively. Supporting our in vitro observations, all the mice orthotopically implanted with PC-3-MIC-1 cells developed metastasis compared with none in the PC-3-vector group. Our results showed that MIC-1 overexpression was associated with apparent changes in actin organization. In addition, an enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP)-bound RhoA was also seen; however, no significant change was observed in total FAK and RhoA levels in the PC-3-MIC-1 cells. Altogether, our findings show that MIC-1 has a role in prostate cancer metastasis, in part, by promoting the motility of these cells. Activation of the FAK-RhoA signaling pathway is involved in MIC-1-mediated actin reorganization, and thus, leads to an increase in the motility of prostate cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1293-1302
Number of pages10
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 1 2010



  • Cancer
  • MIC-1
  • Metastasis
  • Prostate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

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