Outcomes for Pressure Ulcer Trials (OUTPUTs): Protocol for the development of a core domain set for trials evaluating the clinical efficacy or effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention interventions

Anna Lechner, Jan Kottner, Susanne Coleman, Delia Muir, Heather Bagley, DImitri Beeckman, Wendy Chaboyer, Janet Cuddigan, Zena Moore, Claudia Rutherford, Jochen Schmitt, Jane Nixon, Katrin Balzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Core outcome sets (COS) are being developed in many clinical areas to increase the quality and comparability of clinical trial results as well as to ensure their relevance for patients. A COS represents an agreed standardized set of outcomes that describes the minimum that should be consistently reported in all clinical trials of a defined area. It comprises a core domain set (defining what core outcomes should be measured) and a core measurement set (defining measurement/assessment instruments for each core domain). For pressure ulcer prevention trials a COS is lacking. The great heterogeneity of reported outcomes in this field indicates the need for a COS. Methods/design: The first part of this project aims to develop a core domain set by following established methods, which incorporates four steps: (1) definition of the scope, (2) conducting a scoping review, (3) organizing facilitated workshops with service users, (4) performing Delphi surveys and establishing consensus in a face-to-face meeting with different stakeholders. Discussion: After achieving consensus on the core domain set, further work will be undertaken to determine a corresponding core measurement set. This will lead to better pressure ulcer prevention research in the future. There are a number of methodological challenges in the field of COS development. To meet these challenges and to ensure a high-quality COS, the OUTPUTS project affiliates to current standards and works in close collaboration with international experts and with existing international service user groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number449
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 22 2019



  • Clinical trial
  • Core domain set
  • Core outcome set
  • Delphi
  • Dermatology
  • Patient reported outcome
  • Pressure ulcer
  • Prevention
  • Scoping review
  • Service user involvement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this