Outbreak of bloodstream infection temporally associated with the use of an intravascular needleless valve

Mark Edmund Rupp, Lee A. Sholtz, Dawn R. Jourdan, Nedra D. Marion, Laura K. Tyner, Paul D Fey, Peter Charles Iwen, James R. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Needleless intravascular catheter connector valves have been introduced into clinical practice to minimize the risk of needlestick injury. However, infection-control risks associated with these valves may be underappreciated. In March 2005, a dramatic increase in bloodstream infections was noted in multiple patient care units of a hospital in temporal association with the introduction of a needleless valve into use. Methods. Surveillance for primary bloodstream infection was conducted using standard methods throughout the hospital. Blood culture contamination rates were monitored. Cultures were performed using samples obtained from intravascular catheter connector valves. Results. The relative risk of bloodstream infection for the time period in which the suspect connector valve was in use, compared with baseline, was 2.79 (95% confidence interval, 2.27-3.43). In critical care units, the rate of primary bloodstream infection increased with the introduction of the valve from 3.87 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 10.64 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P < .001), and it decreased to 5.59 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) in the 6 months following removal of the device from use. Similarly, in inpatient nursing units, the rate of bloodstream infection increased from 3.47 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 7.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) following introduction of the device, and it decreased to 2.88 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .57) following removal of the device from use. Similar events occurred in the cooperative care units. The rate of blood culture contamination did not substantially change over the course of the study. Of 37 valves that were subjected to microbiological sample testing, 24.3% yielded microbes, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusion. A significant association between primary bloodstream infection and a needleless connector valve was observed. Evaluation of needleless connector valves should include a thorough assessment of infection risks in prospective randomized trials prior to their introduction to the market.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1408-1414
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume44
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

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Disease Outbreaks
Infection
Catheters
Device Removal
Needlestick Injuries
Hospital Units
Coagulase
Critical Care
Infection Control
Staphylococcus
Inpatients
Patient Care
Nursing
Confidence Intervals
Equipment and Supplies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Outbreak of bloodstream infection temporally associated with the use of an intravascular needleless valve. / Rupp, Mark Edmund; Sholtz, Lee A.; Jourdan, Dawn R.; Marion, Nedra D.; Tyner, Laura K.; Fey, Paul D; Iwen, Peter Charles; Anderson, James R.

In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 44, No. 11, 01.06.2007, p. 1408-1414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rupp, Mark Edmund ; Sholtz, Lee A. ; Jourdan, Dawn R. ; Marion, Nedra D. ; Tyner, Laura K. ; Fey, Paul D ; Iwen, Peter Charles ; Anderson, James R. / Outbreak of bloodstream infection temporally associated with the use of an intravascular needleless valve. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007 ; Vol. 44, No. 11. pp. 1408-1414.
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abstract = "Background. Needleless intravascular catheter connector valves have been introduced into clinical practice to minimize the risk of needlestick injury. However, infection-control risks associated with these valves may be underappreciated. In March 2005, a dramatic increase in bloodstream infections was noted in multiple patient care units of a hospital in temporal association with the introduction of a needleless valve into use. Methods. Surveillance for primary bloodstream infection was conducted using standard methods throughout the hospital. Blood culture contamination rates were monitored. Cultures were performed using samples obtained from intravascular catheter connector valves. Results. The relative risk of bloodstream infection for the time period in which the suspect connector valve was in use, compared with baseline, was 2.79 (95{\%} confidence interval, 2.27-3.43). In critical care units, the rate of primary bloodstream infection increased with the introduction of the valve from 3.87 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 10.64 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P < .001), and it decreased to 5.59 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) in the 6 months following removal of the device from use. Similarly, in inpatient nursing units, the rate of bloodstream infection increased from 3.47 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 7.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) following introduction of the device, and it decreased to 2.88 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .57) following removal of the device from use. Similar events occurred in the cooperative care units. The rate of blood culture contamination did not substantially change over the course of the study. Of 37 valves that were subjected to microbiological sample testing, 24.3{\%} yielded microbes, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusion. A significant association between primary bloodstream infection and a needleless connector valve was observed. Evaluation of needleless connector valves should include a thorough assessment of infection risks in prospective randomized trials prior to their introduction to the market.",
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AU - Rupp, Mark Edmund

AU - Sholtz, Lee A.

AU - Jourdan, Dawn R.

AU - Marion, Nedra D.

AU - Tyner, Laura K.

AU - Fey, Paul D

AU - Iwen, Peter Charles

AU - Anderson, James R.

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N2 - Background. Needleless intravascular catheter connector valves have been introduced into clinical practice to minimize the risk of needlestick injury. However, infection-control risks associated with these valves may be underappreciated. In March 2005, a dramatic increase in bloodstream infections was noted in multiple patient care units of a hospital in temporal association with the introduction of a needleless valve into use. Methods. Surveillance for primary bloodstream infection was conducted using standard methods throughout the hospital. Blood culture contamination rates were monitored. Cultures were performed using samples obtained from intravascular catheter connector valves. Results. The relative risk of bloodstream infection for the time period in which the suspect connector valve was in use, compared with baseline, was 2.79 (95% confidence interval, 2.27-3.43). In critical care units, the rate of primary bloodstream infection increased with the introduction of the valve from 3.87 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 10.64 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P < .001), and it decreased to 5.59 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) in the 6 months following removal of the device from use. Similarly, in inpatient nursing units, the rate of bloodstream infection increased from 3.47 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 7.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) following introduction of the device, and it decreased to 2.88 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .57) following removal of the device from use. Similar events occurred in the cooperative care units. The rate of blood culture contamination did not substantially change over the course of the study. Of 37 valves that were subjected to microbiological sample testing, 24.3% yielded microbes, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusion. A significant association between primary bloodstream infection and a needleless connector valve was observed. Evaluation of needleless connector valves should include a thorough assessment of infection risks in prospective randomized trials prior to their introduction to the market.

AB - Background. Needleless intravascular catheter connector valves have been introduced into clinical practice to minimize the risk of needlestick injury. However, infection-control risks associated with these valves may be underappreciated. In March 2005, a dramatic increase in bloodstream infections was noted in multiple patient care units of a hospital in temporal association with the introduction of a needleless valve into use. Methods. Surveillance for primary bloodstream infection was conducted using standard methods throughout the hospital. Blood culture contamination rates were monitored. Cultures were performed using samples obtained from intravascular catheter connector valves. Results. The relative risk of bloodstream infection for the time period in which the suspect connector valve was in use, compared with baseline, was 2.79 (95% confidence interval, 2.27-3.43). In critical care units, the rate of primary bloodstream infection increased with the introduction of the valve from 3.87 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 10.64 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P < .001), and it decreased to 5.59 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) in the 6 months following removal of the device from use. Similarly, in inpatient nursing units, the rate of bloodstream infection increased from 3.47 infections per 1000 catheter-days to 7.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .02) following introduction of the device, and it decreased to 2.88 infections per 1000 catheter-days (P = .57) following removal of the device from use. Similar events occurred in the cooperative care units. The rate of blood culture contamination did not substantially change over the course of the study. Of 37 valves that were subjected to microbiological sample testing, 24.3% yielded microbes, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusion. A significant association between primary bloodstream infection and a needleless connector valve was observed. Evaluation of needleless connector valves should include a thorough assessment of infection risks in prospective randomized trials prior to their introduction to the market.

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