Optical and electronic properties of amorphous WO3 thin film irradiated by laser in air

H. Qiu, Yongfeng Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

To study the potential in optical recording, the laser induced chromism of amorphous WO3 thin films has been investigated. The original film can be colored from grey to purple by one pulse of the KrF excimer laser at 248 nm and bleached to dark grey by one pulse of Nd-YAG laser at 1.06 μm in air. Spectroscopy measurements were applied to study the films at the three alternate states: original, colored and bleached. The changes of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) from colored states to bleached states, could be measured by ellipsometry spectroscopy that showed increasing and decreasing tendency, respectively in luminous range at colored state. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the chemical states. With some W5+ ions existed in the original films by pulsed laser deposition, more lower states ions, such as the W3+ ions were produced along with decreasing W6+ states in films colored by KrF excimer. Laser bleaching was accompanied with decreasing of W5+, W3+ states and increasing of W6+ states in films. The purple color was thought due to the polaron transition between W3+ states and W4+ states or, W5+ states and W4+ states. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) showed that the colored films had more characteristics of n type semiconductor after coloring. We attribute the coloring and bleaching process to photochemical activation and photothermal oxidation, respectively. Raman spectroscopy showed slight crystallization after coloration in films. From temperature field calculation, the crystallization is suggested most likely caused by ion intercalation instead of thermal crystallization. The color states in films are very stable after long-time exposure in air, as well as in oxygen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-139
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume3933
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000
EventLaser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing V - San Jose, CA, USA
Duration: Jan 24 2000Jan 26 2000

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Electronic Properties
Amorphous films
Electronic properties
Optical Properties
Thin Films
Optical properties
Laser
optical properties
Thin films
Lasers
air
thin films
Air
electronics
lasers
Crystallization
Ions
Spectroscopy
bleaching
Coloring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

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title = "Optical and electronic properties of amorphous WO3 thin film irradiated by laser in air",
abstract = "To study the potential in optical recording, the laser induced chromism of amorphous WO3 thin films has been investigated. The original film can be colored from grey to purple by one pulse of the KrF excimer laser at 248 nm and bleached to dark grey by one pulse of Nd-YAG laser at 1.06 μm in air. Spectroscopy measurements were applied to study the films at the three alternate states: original, colored and bleached. The changes of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) from colored states to bleached states, could be measured by ellipsometry spectroscopy that showed increasing and decreasing tendency, respectively in luminous range at colored state. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the chemical states. With some W5+ ions existed in the original films by pulsed laser deposition, more lower states ions, such as the W3+ ions were produced along with decreasing W6+ states in films colored by KrF excimer. Laser bleaching was accompanied with decreasing of W5+, W3+ states and increasing of W6+ states in films. The purple color was thought due to the polaron transition between W3+ states and W4+ states or, W5+ states and W4+ states. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) showed that the colored films had more characteristics of n type semiconductor after coloring. We attribute the coloring and bleaching process to photochemical activation and photothermal oxidation, respectively. Raman spectroscopy showed slight crystallization after coloration in films. From temperature field calculation, the crystallization is suggested most likely caused by ion intercalation instead of thermal crystallization. The color states in films are very stable after long-time exposure in air, as well as in oxygen.",
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AU - Qiu, H.

AU - Lu, Yongfeng

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N2 - To study the potential in optical recording, the laser induced chromism of amorphous WO3 thin films has been investigated. The original film can be colored from grey to purple by one pulse of the KrF excimer laser at 248 nm and bleached to dark grey by one pulse of Nd-YAG laser at 1.06 μm in air. Spectroscopy measurements were applied to study the films at the three alternate states: original, colored and bleached. The changes of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) from colored states to bleached states, could be measured by ellipsometry spectroscopy that showed increasing and decreasing tendency, respectively in luminous range at colored state. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the chemical states. With some W5+ ions existed in the original films by pulsed laser deposition, more lower states ions, such as the W3+ ions were produced along with decreasing W6+ states in films colored by KrF excimer. Laser bleaching was accompanied with decreasing of W5+, W3+ states and increasing of W6+ states in films. The purple color was thought due to the polaron transition between W3+ states and W4+ states or, W5+ states and W4+ states. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) showed that the colored films had more characteristics of n type semiconductor after coloring. We attribute the coloring and bleaching process to photochemical activation and photothermal oxidation, respectively. Raman spectroscopy showed slight crystallization after coloration in films. From temperature field calculation, the crystallization is suggested most likely caused by ion intercalation instead of thermal crystallization. The color states in films are very stable after long-time exposure in air, as well as in oxygen.

AB - To study the potential in optical recording, the laser induced chromism of amorphous WO3 thin films has been investigated. The original film can be colored from grey to purple by one pulse of the KrF excimer laser at 248 nm and bleached to dark grey by one pulse of Nd-YAG laser at 1.06 μm in air. Spectroscopy measurements were applied to study the films at the three alternate states: original, colored and bleached. The changes of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) from colored states to bleached states, could be measured by ellipsometry spectroscopy that showed increasing and decreasing tendency, respectively in luminous range at colored state. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the chemical states. With some W5+ ions existed in the original films by pulsed laser deposition, more lower states ions, such as the W3+ ions were produced along with decreasing W6+ states in films colored by KrF excimer. Laser bleaching was accompanied with decreasing of W5+, W3+ states and increasing of W6+ states in films. The purple color was thought due to the polaron transition between W3+ states and W4+ states or, W5+ states and W4+ states. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) showed that the colored films had more characteristics of n type semiconductor after coloring. We attribute the coloring and bleaching process to photochemical activation and photothermal oxidation, respectively. Raman spectroscopy showed slight crystallization after coloration in films. From temperature field calculation, the crystallization is suggested most likely caused by ion intercalation instead of thermal crystallization. The color states in films are very stable after long-time exposure in air, as well as in oxygen.

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