Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014

Maranda Thompson, Nicholas Hein, Corrine K Hanson, Lynette M Smith, Ann L Anderson Berry, Chesney K. Richter, Karl Stessy Bisselou, Adams Kusi Appiah, Penny Kris-Etherton, Ann C. Skulas-Ray, Tara M. Nordgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number177
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Nutrition Surveys
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
omega-3 fatty acids
pregnancy
Pregnancy
gender
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
eicosapentaenoic acid
docosahexaenoic acid
Fishes
pregnant women
Energy Intake
Pregnant Women
energy intake
fish
toddlers
Health
Population

Keywords

  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Fish oil supplements
  • Lifespan
  • Oily fish
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States : National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014. / Thompson, Maranda; Hein, Nicholas; Hanson, Corrine K; Smith, Lynette M; Anderson Berry, Ann L; Richter, Chesney K.; Bisselou, Karl Stessy; Appiah, Adams Kusi; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Nordgren, Tara M.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 1, 177, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thompson, Maranda ; Hein, Nicholas ; Hanson, Corrine K ; Smith, Lynette M ; Anderson Berry, Ann L ; Richter, Chesney K. ; Bisselou, Karl Stessy ; Appiah, Adams Kusi ; Kris-Etherton, Penny ; Skulas-Ray, Ann C. ; Nordgren, Tara M. / Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States : National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014. In: Nutrients. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
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abstract = "Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.",
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AU - Hein, Nicholas

AU - Hanson, Corrine K

AU - Smith, Lynette M

AU - Anderson Berry, Ann L

AU - Richter, Chesney K.

AU - Bisselou, Karl Stessy

AU - Appiah, Adams Kusi

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny

AU - Skulas-Ray, Ann C.

AU - Nordgren, Tara M.

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N2 - Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

AB - Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

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KW - Lifespan

KW - Oily fish

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