Background A clinically driven transition in perfusion technique occurred at Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, from primarily selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest to a technique of dual arterial perfusion including innominate artery and descending aortic cannulation (DAC), with continuous mildly hypothermic (>30 C) full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass to the entire body. This study retrospectively compared outcomes in a recent cohort of neonates undergoing aortic arch reconstruction with the two techniques. Methods The clinical records of 142 consecutive neonates undergoing operations involving aortic arch reconstruction at a single institution between April 2004 and September 2012 were reviewed. Renal function changes were graded according to the pediatric RIFLE score (based on risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease). Sixteen patients, 8 supported with selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and 8 with DAC, required immediate postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and were excluded from renal function analysis. Multivariable regression models evaluated predictors of pediatric RIFLE score. Results Patients with DAC had shorter median bypass support (113 versus 172 minutes; p < 0.001) and myocardial ischemic time (43 versus 81 minutes; p < 0.001). Patients with DAC had less median fluid gain at 24 hours (37 versus 69 mL/kg; p < 0.001), and lower incidence of acute kidney injury (5% versus 31%; p < 0.001). Fewer patients with DAC (31% versus 58%; p = 0.001) required open chest. Use of selective cerebral perfusion bracketed by brief periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, single-ventricular physiology, and aortic cross-clamp time were found to be multivariable predictors of serious kidney dysfunction. Conclusions Multisite arterial perfusion, including DAC, and maintenance of continuous mildly hypothermic full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass may offer advantages as a perfusion strategy for neonatal arch reconstruction. Prospective investigation of this technique is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine