Neuropathogenesis of lentiviral infection in macaques: Roles of CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses and interleukin-4 in enhancing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in macrophages

Andrey Hicks, Raghava Potula, Yong Jun Sui, Francois Villinger, David Pinson, Istvan Adany, Zhuang Li, Chloe Long, Paul Cheney, Joanne Marcario, Francis Novembre, Niklaus Mueller, Anil Kumar, Eugene Major, Opendra Narayan, Shilpa Buch

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19 Scopus citations


Neurological disease associated with lentiviral infection occurs mainly as a consequence of primary replication of the virus or a combination of the virus infection and replication of opportunistic pathogens in the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that whereas the disease can be caused by CCR5 tropic viruses alone, its induction by CXCR4 (X4) tropic viruses occurred usually in association with infections caused by opportunistic pathogens and in the presence of a Th2 cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4.1,2 Further, X4-mediated neurological disease developed preferentially in rhesus compared to pig-tailed macaques. Because macrophages are the target cells for lentiviral infection in the brain and because macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 is one of the major chemokines that is closely associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia, we tested for correlations between MCP-1 production and virus tropism in macrophages from the two species of macaques. The studies showed that the higher susceptibility of rhesus macaques to X4 virus-mediated encephalitis correlated with heightened production of virus and MCP-1 in cultured macrophages from this species and that these effects were further enhanced with treatment with IL-4. However, the latter effect was restricted to macrophages infected with X4 viruses. IL-4 may therefore be a basic requirement for X4 viruses to cause central nervous system disease i.e.,

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)813-822
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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