Neonatal outcomes associated with maternal recto-vaginal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in Nigeria: a prospective, cross-sectional study

K. Neemann, E. K. Olateju, N. Izevbigie, G. Akaba, G. M. Olanipekun, J. C. Richard, C. I. Duru, N. J. Kocmich, K. K. Samson, A. Rezac-Elgohary, E. A. Anigilaje, T. Yunusa, C. O.N. Megafu, T. O. Ajose, N. Medugu, J. Meza, S. Obaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal recto-vaginal extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriacea (ESBL-E) colonization, identify risk factors for maternal and neonatal ESBL-E colonization, and subsequent impact on neonatal mortality. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital from April 2016 to May 2017. Maternal–neonatal pairs were screened for ESBL-E exposure at time of delivery. Neonatal mortality was assessed at 28 days. Results: A total of 1161 singleton deliveries were evaluated. In total, 9.7% (113/1161) of mothers and 4.3% (50/1161) of infants had ESBL-E-positive cultures at delivery. Maternal antibiotic exposure was associated with ESBL-E recto-vaginal colonization (18.6% (21/113) vs. 8.4% (88/1048), p < 0.001)). Maternal ESBL-E colonization (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 14.85; 95% CI 7.83–28.15) and vaginal delivery (AOR 6.35; 95% CI 2.63–17.1) were identified as a risk factor for positive ESBL-E neonatal surface cultures. Neonatal positive ESBL-E surface cultures were a risk factor for neonatal mortality (stillbirths included, AOR 4.84; 95% CI 1.44–16.31). The finding that maternal ESBL-E recto-vaginal colonization appeared protective in regards to neonatal mortality (AOR 0.22; 95% CI.06–0.75) requires further evaluation. Conclusions: Maternal ESBL-E recto-vaginal colonization is an independent risk factor for neonatal ESBL-E colonization and neonates with positive ESBL-E surface cultures were identified as having increased risk of neonatal mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019



  • Acquisition
  • Extended-spectrum
  • Neonatal mortality
  • Neonatal sepsis
  • Risk factors
  • β-Lactamases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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