N-acetylcysteine blocks formation of cancer-initiating estrogen-DNA adducts in cells

Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Saeed, Mohammed F. Ali, Eleanor G Rogan, Ercole Cavalieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Catechol estrogens, especially 4-hydroxylated metabolites of 17β-estradiol (E2), are responsible for estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite of E2 formed preferentially by cytochrome P-450 1B1, is oxidized to E2-3,4-quinone, which can react with DNA to yield the depurinating adducts 4-OHE2-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE2-1-N7Gua. The apurinic sites generated by the loss of these depurinating adducts induce mutations that could lead to cancer initiation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAcCys) on the metabolism of two cell lines, MCF-10F (a normal human breast epithelial cell line) and E6 (a normal mouse mammary epithelial cell line), treated with 4-OHE2 or its reactive metabolite, E2-3,4-quinone. Extensive HPLC with electrochemical detection and UPLC-MS/MS analyses of the cell media demonstrated that the presence of NAcCys very efficiently shifted the estrogen metabolism toward protective methoxylation and conjugation pathways in multiple ways, whereas formation of depurinating DNA adducts was inhibited. Protection by NAcCys seems to be similar in both cell lines, irrespective of their origin (human or mouse) or the presence of estrogen receptor-α. This finding suggests that NAcCys, a common dietary supplement, could be used as a potential chemopreventive agent to block the initial step in the genotoxicity caused by catechol estrogen quinones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)392-400
Number of pages9
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2010

Fingerprint

DNA Adducts
Acetylcysteine
Estrogens
Metabolites
Catechol Estrogens
Cell Line
Metabolism
Neoplasms
Breast
Dietary supplements
Epithelial Cells
Cells
Quinones
Dietary Supplements
Estrogen Receptors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Estradiol
Carcinogenesis
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Mutation

Keywords

  • Breast epithelial cells
  • Cancer prevention
  • Catechol estrogen quinones
  • Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts
  • Free radicals
  • Homeostasis of estrogen metabolism
  • N-acetylcysteine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

N-acetylcysteine blocks formation of cancer-initiating estrogen-DNA adducts in cells. / Zahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad; Ali, Mohammed F.; Rogan, Eleanor G; Cavalieri, Ercole.

In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3, 01.08.2010, p. 392-400.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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