Myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - A risk factor for sudden death

Anji T. Yetman, Brian W. McCrindle, Cathy MacDonald, Robert M. Freedom, Robert Gow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

191 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Myocardial bridging may cause compression of a coronary artery, and it has been suggested that myocardial ischemia may result. The clinical significance and prognostic value of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods. Angiograms from 36 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed to determine whether myocardial bridging was present and, if so, to assess the characteristics of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery caused by myocardial bridging and the duration of residual diastolic compression. We also reviewed clinical data on these patients. Results. Myocardial bridging was present in 10 (28 percent) of the patients. Compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery persisted for a mean (±SD) of 50±17 percent of diastole. As corn pared with patients without bridging, patients with bridging had a greater incidence of chest pain (60 percent vs. 19 percent, P=0.04), cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation (50 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.004), and ventricular tachycardia (80 percent vs. 8 percent, P<0.001). On average, the patients with bridging had a reduction in systolic blood pressure with exercise of 17±27 mm Hg, as compared with an elevation of 43±31 mm Hg in those without bridging (P<0.001). The patients with bridging also had greater ST-segment depression with exercise (median, 5 vs. 0 mm, P=0.004) and a shorter duration of exercise (mean, 6.6±2.4 vs. 9.1±1.4 minutes, P=0.008). The degree of dispersion of the QT interval corrected for heart rate on the electrocardiogram was greater in patients with bridging than in those without bridging (104±46 vs. 48±31 msec, P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportions of patients who had not died or had cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation five years after the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were 67 percent among patients with bridging and 94 percent among those without bridging (P=0.004). Conclusions. Myocardial bridging is associated with a poor outcome in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our observations suggest that bridging is associated with myocardial ischemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1201-1209
Number of pages9
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume339
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 22 1998

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Myocardial Bridging
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Sudden Death
Coronary Vessels
Exercise
Heart Arrest
Resuscitation
Myocardial Ischemia
Blood Pressure
Diastole
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Ventricular Tachycardia
Cardiac Catheterization
Chest Pain
Zea mays
Angiography
Electrocardiography
Heart Rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - A risk factor for sudden death. / Yetman, Anji T.; McCrindle, Brian W.; MacDonald, Cathy; Freedom, Robert M.; Gow, Robert.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 339, No. 17, 22.10.1998, p. 1201-1209.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yetman, Anji T. ; McCrindle, Brian W. ; MacDonald, Cathy ; Freedom, Robert M. ; Gow, Robert. / Myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - A risk factor for sudden death. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 1998 ; Vol. 339, No. 17. pp. 1201-1209.
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abstract = "Background. Myocardial bridging may cause compression of a coronary artery, and it has been suggested that myocardial ischemia may result. The clinical significance and prognostic value of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods. Angiograms from 36 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed to determine whether myocardial bridging was present and, if so, to assess the characteristics of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery caused by myocardial bridging and the duration of residual diastolic compression. We also reviewed clinical data on these patients. Results. Myocardial bridging was present in 10 (28 percent) of the patients. Compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery persisted for a mean (±SD) of 50±17 percent of diastole. As corn pared with patients without bridging, patients with bridging had a greater incidence of chest pain (60 percent vs. 19 percent, P=0.04), cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation (50 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.004), and ventricular tachycardia (80 percent vs. 8 percent, P<0.001). On average, the patients with bridging had a reduction in systolic blood pressure with exercise of 17±27 mm Hg, as compared with an elevation of 43±31 mm Hg in those without bridging (P<0.001). The patients with bridging also had greater ST-segment depression with exercise (median, 5 vs. 0 mm, P=0.004) and a shorter duration of exercise (mean, 6.6±2.4 vs. 9.1±1.4 minutes, P=0.008). The degree of dispersion of the QT interval corrected for heart rate on the electrocardiogram was greater in patients with bridging than in those without bridging (104±46 vs. 48±31 msec, P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportions of patients who had not died or had cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation five years after the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were 67 percent among patients with bridging and 94 percent among those without bridging (P=0.004). Conclusions. Myocardial bridging is associated with a poor outcome in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our observations suggest that bridging is associated with myocardial ischemia.",
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T1 - Myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - A risk factor for sudden death

AU - Yetman, Anji T.

AU - McCrindle, Brian W.

AU - MacDonald, Cathy

AU - Freedom, Robert M.

AU - Gow, Robert

PY - 1998/10/22

Y1 - 1998/10/22

N2 - Background. Myocardial bridging may cause compression of a coronary artery, and it has been suggested that myocardial ischemia may result. The clinical significance and prognostic value of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods. Angiograms from 36 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed to determine whether myocardial bridging was present and, if so, to assess the characteristics of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery caused by myocardial bridging and the duration of residual diastolic compression. We also reviewed clinical data on these patients. Results. Myocardial bridging was present in 10 (28 percent) of the patients. Compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery persisted for a mean (±SD) of 50±17 percent of diastole. As corn pared with patients without bridging, patients with bridging had a greater incidence of chest pain (60 percent vs. 19 percent, P=0.04), cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation (50 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.004), and ventricular tachycardia (80 percent vs. 8 percent, P<0.001). On average, the patients with bridging had a reduction in systolic blood pressure with exercise of 17±27 mm Hg, as compared with an elevation of 43±31 mm Hg in those without bridging (P<0.001). The patients with bridging also had greater ST-segment depression with exercise (median, 5 vs. 0 mm, P=0.004) and a shorter duration of exercise (mean, 6.6±2.4 vs. 9.1±1.4 minutes, P=0.008). The degree of dispersion of the QT interval corrected for heart rate on the electrocardiogram was greater in patients with bridging than in those without bridging (104±46 vs. 48±31 msec, P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportions of patients who had not died or had cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation five years after the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were 67 percent among patients with bridging and 94 percent among those without bridging (P=0.004). Conclusions. Myocardial bridging is associated with a poor outcome in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our observations suggest that bridging is associated with myocardial ischemia.

AB - Background. Myocardial bridging may cause compression of a coronary artery, and it has been suggested that myocardial ischemia may result. The clinical significance and prognostic value of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods. Angiograms from 36 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed to determine whether myocardial bridging was present and, if so, to assess the characteristics of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery caused by myocardial bridging and the duration of residual diastolic compression. We also reviewed clinical data on these patients. Results. Myocardial bridging was present in 10 (28 percent) of the patients. Compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery persisted for a mean (±SD) of 50±17 percent of diastole. As corn pared with patients without bridging, patients with bridging had a greater incidence of chest pain (60 percent vs. 19 percent, P=0.04), cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation (50 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.004), and ventricular tachycardia (80 percent vs. 8 percent, P<0.001). On average, the patients with bridging had a reduction in systolic blood pressure with exercise of 17±27 mm Hg, as compared with an elevation of 43±31 mm Hg in those without bridging (P<0.001). The patients with bridging also had greater ST-segment depression with exercise (median, 5 vs. 0 mm, P=0.004) and a shorter duration of exercise (mean, 6.6±2.4 vs. 9.1±1.4 minutes, P=0.008). The degree of dispersion of the QT interval corrected for heart rate on the electrocardiogram was greater in patients with bridging than in those without bridging (104±46 vs. 48±31 msec, P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportions of patients who had not died or had cardiac arrest with subsequent resuscitation five years after the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were 67 percent among patients with bridging and 94 percent among those without bridging (P=0.004). Conclusions. Myocardial bridging is associated with a poor outcome in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our observations suggest that bridging is associated with myocardial ischemia.

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