MnTE-2-PyP treatment, or NOX4 inhibition, protects against radiation-induced damage in mouse primary prostate fibroblasts by inhibiting the TGF-beta 1 signaling pathway

Arpita Chatterjee, Elizabeth A. Kosmacek, Rebecca E Deegan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prostate cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy frequently suffer from side effects caused by radiation-induced damage to normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. Exposure of these normal cells during radiation treatment can result in tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which ultimately leads to postirradiation-related chronic complications including urinary urgency and frequency, erectile dysfunction, urethral stricture and incontinence. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported as the most potent causative factor for radiation damage to normal tissue. While MnTE-2-PyP, a ROS scavenger, protects normal cells from radiation-induced damage, it does not protect cancer cells during radiation treatment. However, the mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP provides protection from radiation-induced fibrosis has been unclear. Our current study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism of radiation protection by MnTE-2-PyP in normal mouse prostate fibroblast cells. To investigate the role of MnTE-2-PyP in normal tissue protection after irradiation, primary prostate fibroblasts from C57BL/6 mice were cultured in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP and exposed to 2 Gy of X rays. We found that MnTE-2-PyP could protect primary prostate fibroblasts from radiation-induced activation, as measured by the contraction of collagen discs, and senescence, detected by beta-galactosidase staining. We observed that MnTE-2-PyP inhibited the TGF-β-mediated fibroblast activation pathway by downregulating the expression of TGF-β receptor 2, which in turn reduced the activation and/or expression of SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4. As a result, SMAD2/3-mediated transcription of profibrotic markers was reduced by MnTE-2-PyP. Due to the inhibition of the TGF-β pathway, fibroblasts treated with MnTE-2-PyP could resist radiation-induced activation and senescence. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression is upregulated after irradiation and produces ROS. As was observed with MnTE-2-PyP treatment, NOX4-/- fibroblasts were protected from radiation-induced fibroblast activation and senescence. However, NOX4-/- fibroblasts had reduced levels of active TGF-β1, which resulted in decreased TGF-β signaling. Therefore, our data suggest that reduction of ROS levels, either by MnTE-2-PyP treatment or by eliminating NOX4 activity, significantly protects normal prostate tissues from radiation-induced tissue damage, but that these approaches work on different components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. This study proposes a crucial insight into the molecular mechanism executed by MnTE-2-PyP when utilized as a radioprotector. An understanding of how this molecule works as a radioprotector will lead to a better controlled mode of treatment for post therapy complications in prostate cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)367-381
Number of pages15
JournalRadiation Research
Volume187
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Transforming Growth Factor beta1
NADPH Oxidase
oxidase
fibroblasts
mice
Prostate
Fibroblasts
Radiation
damage
radiation
activation
Reactive Oxygen Species
Therapeutics
fibrosis
cancer
oxygen
manganese tetrakis-(N-ethyl-2 pyridyl) porphyrin
Inhibition (Psychology)
Prostatic Neoplasms
irradiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

MnTE-2-PyP treatment, or NOX4 inhibition, protects against radiation-induced damage in mouse primary prostate fibroblasts by inhibiting the TGF-beta 1 signaling pathway. / Chatterjee, Arpita; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A.; Deegan, Rebecca E.

In: Radiation Research, Vol. 187, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 367-381.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Prostate cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy frequently suffer from side effects caused by radiation-induced damage to normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. Exposure of these normal cells during radiation treatment can result in tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which ultimately leads to postirradiation-related chronic complications including urinary urgency and frequency, erectile dysfunction, urethral stricture and incontinence. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported as the most potent causative factor for radiation damage to normal tissue. While MnTE-2-PyP, a ROS scavenger, protects normal cells from radiation-induced damage, it does not protect cancer cells during radiation treatment. However, the mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP provides protection from radiation-induced fibrosis has been unclear. Our current study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism of radiation protection by MnTE-2-PyP in normal mouse prostate fibroblast cells. To investigate the role of MnTE-2-PyP in normal tissue protection after irradiation, primary prostate fibroblasts from C57BL/6 mice were cultured in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP and exposed to 2 Gy of X rays. We found that MnTE-2-PyP could protect primary prostate fibroblasts from radiation-induced activation, as measured by the contraction of collagen discs, and senescence, detected by beta-galactosidase staining. We observed that MnTE-2-PyP inhibited the TGF-β-mediated fibroblast activation pathway by downregulating the expression of TGF-β receptor 2, which in turn reduced the activation and/or expression of SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4. As a result, SMAD2/3-mediated transcription of profibrotic markers was reduced by MnTE-2-PyP. Due to the inhibition of the TGF-β pathway, fibroblasts treated with MnTE-2-PyP could resist radiation-induced activation and senescence. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression is upregulated after irradiation and produces ROS. As was observed with MnTE-2-PyP treatment, NOX4-/- fibroblasts were protected from radiation-induced fibroblast activation and senescence. However, NOX4-/- fibroblasts had reduced levels of active TGF-β1, which resulted in decreased TGF-β signaling. Therefore, our data suggest that reduction of ROS levels, either by MnTE-2-PyP treatment or by eliminating NOX4 activity, significantly protects normal prostate tissues from radiation-induced tissue damage, but that these approaches work on different components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. This study proposes a crucial insight into the molecular mechanism executed by MnTE-2-PyP when utilized as a radioprotector. An understanding of how this molecule works as a radioprotector will lead to a better controlled mode of treatment for post therapy complications in prostate cancer patients.",
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