Methods for simultaneous detection of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA, and anatoxin- A in environmental samples

Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Kyle D. Hoagland, Daniel D Snow, David Cassada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, can produce several different groups of toxins in the environment including hepatotoxins (microcystins), neurotoxic non-protein amino acids β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and 2,4-diaminobutyric (DABA), as well as the bicyclic amine alkaloid anatoxin-a. Few studies have addressed the methods necessary for an accurate determination of cyanotoxins in environmental samples, and none have been published that can detect these cyanotoxins together in a single sample. Cyanotoxins occur in a wide range of environmental samples including water, fish, and aquatic plant samples. Using polymeric cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD), and liquid chromatography ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), these compounds can for the first time be simultaneously quantified in a variety of environmental sample types. The extraction method for biological samples can distinguish bound and free cyanotoxins. Detection limits for water ranged from 5 to 7 μg/L using HPLC/FD, while detection limits for and LC/MS were in the range of 0.8-3.2 μg/L.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-325
Number of pages10
JournalToxicon
Volume76
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Liquid chromatography
Cyanobacteria
Liquid Chromatography
Limit of Detection
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Microcystins
Water
Solid Phase Extraction
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Alkaloids
Alanine
Fish
Amines
Mass spectrometry
Cations
Ion exchange
Fishes
Fluorescence
Ions
Amino Acids

Keywords

  • Anatoxin-a
  • BMAA
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Cyanotoxins
  • DABA
  • Methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Methods for simultaneous detection of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA, and anatoxin- A in environmental samples. / Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D.; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David.

In: Toxicon, Vol. 76, 01.01.2013, p. 316-325.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed ; Hoagland, Kyle D. ; Snow, Daniel D ; Cassada, David. / Methods for simultaneous detection of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA, and anatoxin- A in environmental samples. In: Toxicon. 2013 ; Vol. 76. pp. 316-325.
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