Medications associated with fracture risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Gulsen Ozen, Sofia Pedro, Frederick Wolfe, Kaleb D Michaud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To examine the fracture risk with use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), statins, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), opioids, non-opioid analgesics and psychotropic medications in a US-wide observational rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. Methods: Patients with RA without prior fracture from 2001 through 2017 in FORWARD, a longitudinal observational registry, were assessed for osteoporosis-related site fractures (vertebra, hip, forearm and humerus). DMARD exposure was assessed in four mutually exclusive groups: (1) methotrexate monotherapy-reference, (2) tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi), (3) non-TNFi biologics and (4) others. Non-DMARDs and glucocorticoids were classified as current/ever use and based on treatment duration. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores estimating for 10-year major osteoporotic fractures were calculated. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by FRAX were used to adjust for confounders. Results: During median (IQR) 3.0 (1.5-6.0) years of follow-up in 11 412 patients, 914 fractures were observed. The adjusted models showed a significant fracture risk increase with use of any dose glucocorticoids ≥3 months (HR (95% CI) for <7.5 mg/day 1.26 (1.07 to 1.48) and for ≥7.5 mg/day 1.57 (1.27 to 1.94)), opioids (for weak: 1.37 (1.18 to 1.59); strong: 1.53 (1.24 to 1.88)) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (1.37 (1.15 to 1.63)). Fracture risk with opioids increased within 1 month of use (1.66 (1.36 to 2.04)) and with SSRIs >3 months of use (1.25 (1.01 to 1.55)). Statins (0.77 (0.62 to 0.96)) and TNFi (0.72 (0.54 to 0.97)) were associated with reduction in vertebral fracture risk only. PPIs and other psychotropic medications were not associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusion: Use of opioids, SSRIs and glucocorticoids were associated with increased risk of any fracture in patients with RA, whereas statins and TNFi were associated with decreased vertebral fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Rheumatoid Arthritis
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Antirheumatic Agents
Glucocorticoids
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Opioid Analgesics
Osteoporotic Fractures
Humerus
Hip Fractures
Biological Factors
Proportional Hazards Models
Forearm
Methotrexate
Osteoporosis
Analgesics
Registries
Spine
Necrosis
Biological Products

Keywords

  • antidepressants
  • cohort study
  • fracture
  • opioids
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • statins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Medications associated with fracture risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. / Ozen, Gulsen; Pedro, Sofia; Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb D.

In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Medications associated with fracture risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis",
abstract = "Objective: To examine the fracture risk with use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), statins, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), opioids, non-opioid analgesics and psychotropic medications in a US-wide observational rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. Methods: Patients with RA without prior fracture from 2001 through 2017 in FORWARD, a longitudinal observational registry, were assessed for osteoporosis-related site fractures (vertebra, hip, forearm and humerus). DMARD exposure was assessed in four mutually exclusive groups: (1) methotrexate monotherapy-reference, (2) tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi), (3) non-TNFi biologics and (4) others. Non-DMARDs and glucocorticoids were classified as current/ever use and based on treatment duration. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores estimating for 10-year major osteoporotic fractures were calculated. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by FRAX were used to adjust for confounders. Results: During median (IQR) 3.0 (1.5-6.0) years of follow-up in 11 412 patients, 914 fractures were observed. The adjusted models showed a significant fracture risk increase with use of any dose glucocorticoids ≥3 months (HR (95{\%} CI) for <7.5 mg/day 1.26 (1.07 to 1.48) and for ≥7.5 mg/day 1.57 (1.27 to 1.94)), opioids (for weak: 1.37 (1.18 to 1.59); strong: 1.53 (1.24 to 1.88)) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (1.37 (1.15 to 1.63)). Fracture risk with opioids increased within 1 month of use (1.66 (1.36 to 2.04)) and with SSRIs >3 months of use (1.25 (1.01 to 1.55)). Statins (0.77 (0.62 to 0.96)) and TNFi (0.72 (0.54 to 0.97)) were associated with reduction in vertebral fracture risk only. PPIs and other psychotropic medications were not associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusion: Use of opioids, SSRIs and glucocorticoids were associated with increased risk of any fracture in patients with RA, whereas statins and TNFi were associated with decreased vertebral fractures.",
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author = "Gulsen Ozen and Sofia Pedro and Frederick Wolfe and Michaud, {Kaleb D}",
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T1 - Medications associated with fracture risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

AU - Ozen, Gulsen

AU - Pedro, Sofia

AU - Wolfe, Frederick

AU - Michaud, Kaleb D

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Objective: To examine the fracture risk with use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), statins, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), opioids, non-opioid analgesics and psychotropic medications in a US-wide observational rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. Methods: Patients with RA without prior fracture from 2001 through 2017 in FORWARD, a longitudinal observational registry, were assessed for osteoporosis-related site fractures (vertebra, hip, forearm and humerus). DMARD exposure was assessed in four mutually exclusive groups: (1) methotrexate monotherapy-reference, (2) tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi), (3) non-TNFi biologics and (4) others. Non-DMARDs and glucocorticoids were classified as current/ever use and based on treatment duration. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores estimating for 10-year major osteoporotic fractures were calculated. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by FRAX were used to adjust for confounders. Results: During median (IQR) 3.0 (1.5-6.0) years of follow-up in 11 412 patients, 914 fractures were observed. The adjusted models showed a significant fracture risk increase with use of any dose glucocorticoids ≥3 months (HR (95% CI) for <7.5 mg/day 1.26 (1.07 to 1.48) and for ≥7.5 mg/day 1.57 (1.27 to 1.94)), opioids (for weak: 1.37 (1.18 to 1.59); strong: 1.53 (1.24 to 1.88)) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (1.37 (1.15 to 1.63)). Fracture risk with opioids increased within 1 month of use (1.66 (1.36 to 2.04)) and with SSRIs >3 months of use (1.25 (1.01 to 1.55)). Statins (0.77 (0.62 to 0.96)) and TNFi (0.72 (0.54 to 0.97)) were associated with reduction in vertebral fracture risk only. PPIs and other psychotropic medications were not associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusion: Use of opioids, SSRIs and glucocorticoids were associated with increased risk of any fracture in patients with RA, whereas statins and TNFi were associated with decreased vertebral fractures.

AB - Objective: To examine the fracture risk with use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), statins, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), opioids, non-opioid analgesics and psychotropic medications in a US-wide observational rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. Methods: Patients with RA without prior fracture from 2001 through 2017 in FORWARD, a longitudinal observational registry, were assessed for osteoporosis-related site fractures (vertebra, hip, forearm and humerus). DMARD exposure was assessed in four mutually exclusive groups: (1) methotrexate monotherapy-reference, (2) tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi), (3) non-TNFi biologics and (4) others. Non-DMARDs and glucocorticoids were classified as current/ever use and based on treatment duration. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores estimating for 10-year major osteoporotic fractures were calculated. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by FRAX were used to adjust for confounders. Results: During median (IQR) 3.0 (1.5-6.0) years of follow-up in 11 412 patients, 914 fractures were observed. The adjusted models showed a significant fracture risk increase with use of any dose glucocorticoids ≥3 months (HR (95% CI) for <7.5 mg/day 1.26 (1.07 to 1.48) and for ≥7.5 mg/day 1.57 (1.27 to 1.94)), opioids (for weak: 1.37 (1.18 to 1.59); strong: 1.53 (1.24 to 1.88)) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (1.37 (1.15 to 1.63)). Fracture risk with opioids increased within 1 month of use (1.66 (1.36 to 2.04)) and with SSRIs >3 months of use (1.25 (1.01 to 1.55)). Statins (0.77 (0.62 to 0.96)) and TNFi (0.72 (0.54 to 0.97)) were associated with reduction in vertebral fracture risk only. PPIs and other psychotropic medications were not associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusion: Use of opioids, SSRIs and glucocorticoids were associated with increased risk of any fracture in patients with RA, whereas statins and TNFi were associated with decreased vertebral fractures.

KW - antidepressants

KW - cohort study

KW - fracture

KW - opioids

KW - rheumatoid arthritis

KW - statins

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