Mass Spectrometry Identifies Isopeptide Cross-Links Promoted by Diethylphosphorylated Lysine in Proteins Treated with Chlorpyrifos Oxon

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Abstract

Exposure to chlorpyrifos at doses that do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase can be followed by chronic illness in adults and developmental deficits in children. A mechanism to explain these effects is not available. Using mass spectrometry, we have found that chlorpyrifos oxon is a cross-linking agent. Pure proteins incubated with 1.5 mM chlorpyrifos oxon were diethylphosphorylated on lysine and tyrosine. The diethylphospho-lysine reacted with the carboxyl side-chain of aspartic and glutamic acid to form an isopeptide cross-link, releasing diethylphosphate in the process. Of the 14 proteins tested, 9 had cross-links between distinct proteins or between monomers of the same protein, whereas 8 had a cyclic structure created by joining side-chains of nearby residues through an isopeptide bond. The precursor lysine in the isopeptide bond was diethylphosphorylated on the ϵ-amino group. Tubulin was more susceptible to chlorpyrifos-oxon-induced cross-linking than the other proteins (10 cross-links in tubulin, 2 in human albumin). The role of diethylphospho-tyrosine was not examined. We hypothesize that the protein misfolding and protein cross-linking induced by exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, via metabolism of chlorpyrifos, could disrupt function, particularly of tubulin, thus leading to chronic illness. Our proposed mechanism is hypothetical until the many questions it raises have been addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)762-772
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Volume32
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2019

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Lysine
Mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Tubulin
Proteins
Chlorpyrifos
Tyrosine
Chronic Disease
Acetylcholinesterase
O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphate
Metabolism
Joining
Glutamic Acid
Albumins
Monomers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

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title = "Mass Spectrometry Identifies Isopeptide Cross-Links Promoted by Diethylphosphorylated Lysine in Proteins Treated with Chlorpyrifos Oxon",
abstract = "Exposure to chlorpyrifos at doses that do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase can be followed by chronic illness in adults and developmental deficits in children. A mechanism to explain these effects is not available. Using mass spectrometry, we have found that chlorpyrifos oxon is a cross-linking agent. Pure proteins incubated with 1.5 mM chlorpyrifos oxon were diethylphosphorylated on lysine and tyrosine. The diethylphospho-lysine reacted with the carboxyl side-chain of aspartic and glutamic acid to form an isopeptide cross-link, releasing diethylphosphate in the process. Of the 14 proteins tested, 9 had cross-links between distinct proteins or between monomers of the same protein, whereas 8 had a cyclic structure created by joining side-chains of nearby residues through an isopeptide bond. The precursor lysine in the isopeptide bond was diethylphosphorylated on the ϵ-amino group. Tubulin was more susceptible to chlorpyrifos-oxon-induced cross-linking than the other proteins (10 cross-links in tubulin, 2 in human albumin). The role of diethylphospho-tyrosine was not examined. We hypothesize that the protein misfolding and protein cross-linking induced by exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, via metabolism of chlorpyrifos, could disrupt function, particularly of tubulin, thus leading to chronic illness. Our proposed mechanism is hypothetical until the many questions it raises have been addressed.",
author = "Schopfer, {Lawrence M.} and Oksana Lockridge",
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T1 - Mass Spectrometry Identifies Isopeptide Cross-Links Promoted by Diethylphosphorylated Lysine in Proteins Treated with Chlorpyrifos Oxon

AU - Schopfer, Lawrence M.

AU - Lockridge, Oksana

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N2 - Exposure to chlorpyrifos at doses that do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase can be followed by chronic illness in adults and developmental deficits in children. A mechanism to explain these effects is not available. Using mass spectrometry, we have found that chlorpyrifos oxon is a cross-linking agent. Pure proteins incubated with 1.5 mM chlorpyrifos oxon were diethylphosphorylated on lysine and tyrosine. The diethylphospho-lysine reacted with the carboxyl side-chain of aspartic and glutamic acid to form an isopeptide cross-link, releasing diethylphosphate in the process. Of the 14 proteins tested, 9 had cross-links between distinct proteins or between monomers of the same protein, whereas 8 had a cyclic structure created by joining side-chains of nearby residues through an isopeptide bond. The precursor lysine in the isopeptide bond was diethylphosphorylated on the ϵ-amino group. Tubulin was more susceptible to chlorpyrifos-oxon-induced cross-linking than the other proteins (10 cross-links in tubulin, 2 in human albumin). The role of diethylphospho-tyrosine was not examined. We hypothesize that the protein misfolding and protein cross-linking induced by exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, via metabolism of chlorpyrifos, could disrupt function, particularly of tubulin, thus leading to chronic illness. Our proposed mechanism is hypothetical until the many questions it raises have been addressed.

AB - Exposure to chlorpyrifos at doses that do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase can be followed by chronic illness in adults and developmental deficits in children. A mechanism to explain these effects is not available. Using mass spectrometry, we have found that chlorpyrifos oxon is a cross-linking agent. Pure proteins incubated with 1.5 mM chlorpyrifos oxon were diethylphosphorylated on lysine and tyrosine. The diethylphospho-lysine reacted with the carboxyl side-chain of aspartic and glutamic acid to form an isopeptide cross-link, releasing diethylphosphate in the process. Of the 14 proteins tested, 9 had cross-links between distinct proteins or between monomers of the same protein, whereas 8 had a cyclic structure created by joining side-chains of nearby residues through an isopeptide bond. The precursor lysine in the isopeptide bond was diethylphosphorylated on the ϵ-amino group. Tubulin was more susceptible to chlorpyrifos-oxon-induced cross-linking than the other proteins (10 cross-links in tubulin, 2 in human albumin). The role of diethylphospho-tyrosine was not examined. We hypothesize that the protein misfolding and protein cross-linking induced by exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, via metabolism of chlorpyrifos, could disrupt function, particularly of tubulin, thus leading to chronic illness. Our proposed mechanism is hypothetical until the many questions it raises have been addressed.

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