Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a low-dose chemotherapy regimen in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -positive, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after organ transplantation who have experienced failure with front-line therapy for PTLD. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients received cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2 intravenous for 1 day) and prednisone (2 mg/kg orally for 5 days) every 3 weeks for six cycles. Results: Thirty-six patients treated on study were assessable for analyses. Front-line therapies for PTLD before study entry included immune suppression reduction or withdrawal (n = 36), antiviral therapy (n = 33), surgical resection (n = 8), rituximab (n = 2), and interferon alfa (n = 1). Reasons for failure of front-line therapy included progressive disease (PD; n = 33) and persistent disease with concurrent allograft rejection (n =3). Thirty patients (83%) had stage III to IV disease, 92% had extranodal disease, and 75% had > three sites of disease. The overall response rate was 83% (75% complete response + 8% partial response). The relapse rate was 19%, with only one of five relapsed patients alive and disease-free. Four patients presented with fulminant, disseminated PTLD; only one of these four patients achieved a response, and all four died of PD. Two patients died of treatment-related toxicity. Three patients (8%) experienced allograft loss, but two of the three patients are alive and disease-free after a second transplantation. The 2-year overall, relapse-free, and failure-free (without PTLD and with functioning original allograft) survival rates were 73%, 69%, and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: This low-dose chemotherapy regimen is effective for children with EBV-positive, nonfulminant PTLD who have experienced treatment failure with frontline therapy, and this study represents the largest series of PTLD patients treated prospectively with a uniform chemotherapy regimen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research