Loss of SPEF2 function in mice results in spermatogenesis defects and primary ciliary dyskinesia

Anu Sironen, Noora Kotaja, Howard Mulhern, Todd A Wyatt, Joseph Harold Sisson, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Mari Miiluniemi, Mark D. Fleming, Lance Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) results from defects in motile cilia function. Mice homozygous for the mutation big giant head (bgh) have several abnormalities commonly associated with PCD, including hydrocephalus, male infertility, and sinusitis. In the present study, we use a variety of histopathological and cell biological techniques to characterize the bgh phenotype, and we identify the bgh mutation using a positional cloning approach. Histopathological, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that the male infertility results from shortened flagella and disorganized axonemal and accessory structures in elongating spermatids and mature sperm. In addition, there is a reduced number of elongating spermatids during spermatogenesis and mature sperm in the epididymis. Histological analyses show that the hydrocephalus is characterized by severe dilatation of the lateral ventricles and that bgh sinuses have an accumulation of mucus infiltrated by neutrophils. In contrast to the sperm phenotype, electron microscopy demonstrates that mutant respiratory epithelial cilia are ultrastructurally normal, but video microscopic analysis shows that their beat frequency is lower than that of wild-type cilia. Through a positional cloning approach, we identified two sequence variants in the gene encoding sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2), which has been postulated to play an important role in spermatogenesis and flagellar assembly. A causative nonsense mutation was validated by Western blot analysis, strongly suggesting that the bgh phenotype results from the loss of SPEF2 function. Taken together, the data in this study demonstrate that SPEF2 is required for cilia function and identify a new genetic cause of PCD in mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)690-701
Number of pages12
JournalBiology of reproduction
Volume85
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2011

Fingerprint

Kartagener Syndrome
Spermatogenesis
Spermatozoa
Cilia
Head
Proteins
Spermatids
Male Infertility
Hydrocephalus
Phenotype
Organism Cloning
Mutation
Flagella
Nonsense Codon
Epididymis
Lateral Ventricles
Sinusitis
Mucus
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Dilatation

Keywords

  • Cilia
  • Flagella
  • Genetics
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Male infertility
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia
  • SPEF2
  • Sinusitis
  • Spermatogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Loss of SPEF2 function in mice results in spermatogenesis defects and primary ciliary dyskinesia. / Sironen, Anu; Kotaja, Noora; Mulhern, Howard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph Harold; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Miiluniemi, Mari; Fleming, Mark D.; Lee, Lance.

In: Biology of reproduction, Vol. 85, No. 4, 01.10.2011, p. 690-701.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sironen, Anu ; Kotaja, Noora ; Mulhern, Howard ; Wyatt, Todd A ; Sisson, Joseph Harold ; Pavlik, Jacqueline A. ; Miiluniemi, Mari ; Fleming, Mark D. ; Lee, Lance. / Loss of SPEF2 function in mice results in spermatogenesis defects and primary ciliary dyskinesia. In: Biology of reproduction. 2011 ; Vol. 85, No. 4. pp. 690-701.
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