Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) contributes to necrotic cell death and inflammation in several disease models; however, the role of PARP1 in fibrogenesis remains to be defined. Here, we tested whether PARP1 was involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model. UUO was performed by ligation of the left ureter near the renal pelvis in Parp1 -knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice. After 10 days of UUO, renal PARP1 expression and activation were strongly increased by 6- and 13-fold, respectively. Interstitial fibrosis induced by UUO was significantly attenuated in Parp1-KO kidneys compared with that in WT kidneys at 10 days, but not at 3 days, based on collagen deposition, a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin expression. Intriguingly, the UUO kidneys in Parp1-KO mice showed a dramatic decrease in infiltration of neutrophil and reduction in expression of proinflammatory proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and toll-like receptor 4 as well as phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65, but not transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) at both 3 and 10 days. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 in rat renal interstitial fibroblast (NRK-49F) cell line or genetic ablation in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells did not affect TGF-β1-induced de novo α-SMA expression. Parp1 deficiency significantly attenuated UUO-induced histological damage in the kidney tubular cells, but not apoptosis. These data suggest that PARP1 induces necrotic cell death and contributes to inflammatory signaling pathways that trigger fibrogenesis in obstructive nephropathy.
- Mouse embryonic fibroblast
- PARP1 inhibitor
- Rat renal interstitial fibroblast
- α-smooth muscle action
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