Objective: To determine whether circulating levels of two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, are associated with loss of alveolar bone density (ABD) or height (ABH), or with progression of periodontitis (relative clinical attachment level [RCAL]), among postmenopausal women with local and systemic bone loss. Background: This study was planned as part of a 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining efficacy/safety of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (20 mg bid) in postmenopausal osteopenic women. This study examines whether serum levels of gelatinases are associated with local changes in the periodontium. Methods: A sample of 113 women received periodontal maintenance for moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis and consented to analysis of stored serum biomarkers. Posterior vertical bitewings were taken, and serum collected, at baseline, one, and 2 years. ABD was determined by computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), ABH by the Hausmann et al (1992, J Periodontol 63, 657) method, and RCAL by Florida Probe (every 6 months). MMPs were measured densitometrically on gelatin zymograms using denatured type I collagen as substrate and purified MMP-2 (72 kDa) and MMP-9 (92 kDa) as standards. Evidence of worsening in the periodontium at a tooth site was defined as a change from baseline of, for ABD, at least 14 densitometric units (for subcrestal locations) or 17 units (for crestal locations); of at least 0.4 mm for ABH; and of at least 1.5 mm for RCAL. Logistic regression models, while accounting for clustering, compared the odds of worsening in ABD, ABH, or RCAL, after 2 years of observation, between groups defined by baseline and concurrent levels of serum gelatinases. Results: Changes in ABH and RCAL were not associated with circulating levels of MMP-2 or MMP-9. However, elevated odds of ABD loss over 24 months were associated, among smokers, with both baseline and concurrent levels of MMP-9 in the middle and highest tertile, and with concurrent levels of MMP-2 in the middle (but not the highest) tertile. Elevated odds of ABD loss were also associated, among women within 5 years of menopause, with baseline levels of MMP-2 in the highest tertile. Conclusion: Among postmenopausal osteopenic women, loss of ABD was associated, in smokers, with elevated circulating levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2. In those within 5 years of menopause, ABD loss was associated with elevated circulating levels of MMP-2.
- matrix metalloproteinases
- periodontal disease/periodontitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas