Long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to nonhuman primates

Implications for urinary tract cancer

S. Takayama, S. M. Sieber, R. H. Adamson, U. P. Thorgeirsson, D. W. Dalgard, Lora L Arnold, M. Cano, S. Eklund, Samuel Monroe Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: It was observed in the early 1970s that saccharin produced bladder cancer in rats. However, it has been unclear whether sodium saccharin when consumed by humans poses a substantial carcinogenic hazard. Numerous epidemiologic studies have not shown any evidence of increased urothelial proliferation associated with ingestion of sodium saccharin. Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the effects of long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to three species of nonhuman primates. Methods: Twenty monkeys of three species (six African green, seven rhesus, six cynomolgus, and one hybrid [of rhesus male and cynomolgus female parentage]) were treated with sodium saccharin (25 mg in the diet/kg body weight daily for 5 days a week) beginning within 24 hours after birth and continuing for up to 24 years. Sixteen monkeys (seven rhesus and nine cynomolgus) served as controls. During their last 2 years of life, urine was collected from selected treated and control animals and evaluated for various urinary chemistries and for the presence of calculi, microcrystalluria, and precipitate. Urinary bladders were examined by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Sodium saccharin treatment had no effect on the urine or urothelium in any of these monkeys. There was no evidence of increased urothelial cell proliferation, and there was no evidence of formation of solid material in the urine. Conclusion: Although the dose of sodium saccharin administered to these monkeys was only five to 10 times the allowable daily intake for humans, the results provide additional evidence that sodium saccharin is without a carcinogenic effect on the primate urinary tract.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-25
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume90
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 7 1998

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Urologic Neoplasms
Saccharin
Primates
Haplorhini
Urine
Urothelium
Calculi
Macaca mulatta
Urinary Tract
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Epidemiologic Studies
Microscopy
Urinary Bladder
Eating
Body Weight
Cell Proliferation
Parturition
Diet
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to nonhuman primates : Implications for urinary tract cancer. / Takayama, S.; Sieber, S. M.; Adamson, R. H.; Thorgeirsson, U. P.; Dalgard, D. W.; Arnold, Lora L; Cano, M.; Eklund, S.; Cohen, Samuel Monroe.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 90, No. 1, 07.01.1998, p. 19-25.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Takayama, S. ; Sieber, S. M. ; Adamson, R. H. ; Thorgeirsson, U. P. ; Dalgard, D. W. ; Arnold, Lora L ; Cano, M. ; Eklund, S. ; Cohen, Samuel Monroe. / Long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to nonhuman primates : Implications for urinary tract cancer. In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998 ; Vol. 90, No. 1. pp. 19-25.
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AU - Thorgeirsson, U. P.

AU - Dalgard, D. W.

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AU - Eklund, S.

AU - Cohen, Samuel Monroe

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N2 - Background: It was observed in the early 1970s that saccharin produced bladder cancer in rats. However, it has been unclear whether sodium saccharin when consumed by humans poses a substantial carcinogenic hazard. Numerous epidemiologic studies have not shown any evidence of increased urothelial proliferation associated with ingestion of sodium saccharin. Purpose: Our purpose was to determine the effects of long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to three species of nonhuman primates. Methods: Twenty monkeys of three species (six African green, seven rhesus, six cynomolgus, and one hybrid [of rhesus male and cynomolgus female parentage]) were treated with sodium saccharin (25 mg in the diet/kg body weight daily for 5 days a week) beginning within 24 hours after birth and continuing for up to 24 years. Sixteen monkeys (seven rhesus and nine cynomolgus) served as controls. During their last 2 years of life, urine was collected from selected treated and control animals and evaluated for various urinary chemistries and for the presence of calculi, microcrystalluria, and precipitate. Urinary bladders were examined by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Sodium saccharin treatment had no effect on the urine or urothelium in any of these monkeys. There was no evidence of increased urothelial cell proliferation, and there was no evidence of formation of solid material in the urine. Conclusion: Although the dose of sodium saccharin administered to these monkeys was only five to 10 times the allowable daily intake for humans, the results provide additional evidence that sodium saccharin is without a carcinogenic effect on the primate urinary tract.

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