Long-chain fatty acid transport in bacteria and yeast. Paradigms for defining the mechanism underlying this protein-mediated process

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Abstract

Protein-mediated transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids across the membrane has been defined in a number of different systems. Central to understanding the mechanism underlying this process is the development of the appropriate experimental systems which can be manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are ideally suited as model systems to study this process in that both [1] exhibit saturable long-chain fatty acid transport at low ligand concentration; [2] have specific membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins that are components of the transport apparatus; and [3] can be easily manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. In E. coli, this process requires the outer membrane-bound fatty acid transport protein FadL and the inner membrane associated fatty acyl CoA synthetase (FACS). FadL appears to represent a substrate specific channel for long-chain fatty acids while FACS activates these compounds to CoA thioesters thereby rendering this process unidirectional. This process requires both ATP generated from either substrate-level or oxidative phosphorylation and the proton electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. In S. cerevisiae, the process of long-chain fatty acid transport requires at least the membrane-bound protein Fat1p. Exogenously supplied fatty acids are activated by the fatty acyl CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p but unlike the case in E. coli, there is not a tight linkage between transport and activation. Studies evaluating the growth parameters in the presence of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acid transport profiles of a fat1Δ strain support the hypothesis that Fat1p is required for optimal levels of long-chain fatty acid transport.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-52
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Volume192
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Apr 21 1999

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Yeast
Bacteria
Fatty Acids
Yeasts
Coenzyme A Ligases
Membranes
Acyl Coenzyme A
Proteins
Escherichia coli
Protein Transport
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Molecular Biology
Membrane Proteins
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substrates
Coenzyme A
Protons
Adenosine Triphosphate
Chemical activation

Keywords

  • Fatty acid transport
  • Fatty acyl CoA synthetase
  • Long chain fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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abstract = "Protein-mediated transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids across the membrane has been defined in a number of different systems. Central to understanding the mechanism underlying this process is the development of the appropriate experimental systems which can be manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are ideally suited as model systems to study this process in that both [1] exhibit saturable long-chain fatty acid transport at low ligand concentration; [2] have specific membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins that are components of the transport apparatus; and [3] can be easily manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. In E. coli, this process requires the outer membrane-bound fatty acid transport protein FadL and the inner membrane associated fatty acyl CoA synthetase (FACS). FadL appears to represent a substrate specific channel for long-chain fatty acids while FACS activates these compounds to CoA thioesters thereby rendering this process unidirectional. This process requires both ATP generated from either substrate-level or oxidative phosphorylation and the proton electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. In S. cerevisiae, the process of long-chain fatty acid transport requires at least the membrane-bound protein Fat1p. Exogenously supplied fatty acids are activated by the fatty acyl CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p but unlike the case in E. coli, there is not a tight linkage between transport and activation. Studies evaluating the growth parameters in the presence of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acid transport profiles of a fat1Δ strain support the hypothesis that Fat1p is required for optimal levels of long-chain fatty acid transport.",
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N2 - Protein-mediated transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids across the membrane has been defined in a number of different systems. Central to understanding the mechanism underlying this process is the development of the appropriate experimental systems which can be manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are ideally suited as model systems to study this process in that both [1] exhibit saturable long-chain fatty acid transport at low ligand concentration; [2] have specific membrane-bound and membrane-associated proteins that are components of the transport apparatus; and [3] can be easily manipulated using the tools of molecular genetics. In E. coli, this process requires the outer membrane-bound fatty acid transport protein FadL and the inner membrane associated fatty acyl CoA synthetase (FACS). FadL appears to represent a substrate specific channel for long-chain fatty acids while FACS activates these compounds to CoA thioesters thereby rendering this process unidirectional. This process requires both ATP generated from either substrate-level or oxidative phosphorylation and the proton electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane. In S. cerevisiae, the process of long-chain fatty acid transport requires at least the membrane-bound protein Fat1p. Exogenously supplied fatty acids are activated by the fatty acyl CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p but unlike the case in E. coli, there is not a tight linkage between transport and activation. Studies evaluating the growth parameters in the presence of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acid transport profiles of a fat1Δ strain support the hypothesis that Fat1p is required for optimal levels of long-chain fatty acid transport.

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