Background:Rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with live-attenuated Rev-Independent Nef- simian immunodeficiency virus (Rev-Ind Nef-SIV) as adults or neonates controlled viremia to undetectable levels and showed no signs of immunodeficiency over 6-8 years of follow-up. We tested the capacity of this live-attenuated virus to protect RMs against pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenges.Methodology/Principal Findings:Three groups of four RM were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef-SIV and compared. Group 1 was inoculated 8 years prior and again 15 months before low dose intrarectal challenges with SIVsmE660. Group 2 animals were inoculated with Rev-Ind Nef-SIV at 15 months and Group 3 at 2 weeks prior to the SIVsmE660 challenges, respectively. Group 4 served as unvaccinated controls. All RMs underwent repeated weekly low-dose intrarectal challenges with SIVsmE660. Surprisingly, all RMs with acute live-attenuated virus infection (Group 3) became superinfected with the challenge virus, in contrast to the two other vaccine groups (Groups 1 and 2) (P=0.006 for each) and controls (Group 4) (P=0.022). Gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of innate immune response-related chemokines and their receptors, most notably CCR5 in Group 3 animals during acute infection with Rev-Ind Nef-SIV.Conclusions/Significance:We conclude that although Rev-Ind Nef-SIV remained apathogenic, acute replication of the vaccine strain was not protective but associated with increased acquisition of heterologous mucosal SIVsmE660 challenges.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)