The problems of adulteration and mislabeling are very common in the food industry. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with chemometric methods has many intrinsic advantages on adulteration analysis of various materials. In this work, several chemometric algorithms, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM), were carried out assisted by LIBS technology to study the classification performances on rice geographic origins. A series of samples, including 20 kinds of rice samples from different geographic origins, was detected using LIBS with no pretreatment processes. For data analysis, PCA was employed to reduce the input variables, and to reduce the collinearity of LIBS spectral results as well. The results showed the classification accuracies of the mentioned chemometric algorithms of DT, RF, PLS-DA, LDA, and SVM with 89 input variables of 86.80%, 96.30%, 96.80%, 98.60%, and 99.20%, respectively. At the same time, the operation times of these algorithms were 3.81 s, 54.64 s, 3.63 s, 2.09 s, and 531.01 s, respectively. On the other hand, 30 principal components of input variables were also tested under the same conditions. The classification accuracies for the above algorithms were 81.60%, 98.00%, 95.70%, 98.40%, and 99.20%, respectively. The operation times were 2.01 s, 4.88 s, 3.67 s, 0.36 s, and 308.55 s, respectively. In addition, the five-fold cross-validation classification accuracies with 30 input variables for DT, RF, PLS-DA, LDA, and SVM were 83.75%, 97.95%, 94.75%, 98.35%, and 99.25%, respectively. As a result, LDA was demonstrated to be the best and most efficient tool for rice geographic origin classification assisted by LIBS with high accuracy and analytical speed, which has great potential for rapid identification of adulterated products in agriculture without use of any chemical reagent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering