Involvement of Epigenetic Promoter DNA Methylation of miR-124 in the Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

Shilpa J Buch, Palsamy Periyasamy, Minglei Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in controlling viremia, the central nervous system (CNS) continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Transactivator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein. Based on the premise that cART does not impact levels of HIV-1 Tat, and since the CNS is inaccessible to the cART regimens, HIV-1-Tat-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated as an underlying mediator of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of HAND, however, remain less understood. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. The study published by Periyasamy et al provides new mechanistic insights into the role of HIV-1-Tat-mediated DNA methylation of miR-124 promoter in regulating microglial activation via the MECP2-STAT3 signaling axis. Furthermore, the authors have also reported that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells to HIV-1 Tat notably increased DNA methylation of primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters (with no change in primary miR-124-3), resulting in turn to downregulated expression of both primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 as well as mature miR-124 in mouse primary microglial cells. The authors also examined the involvement of MECP2-STAT3 signaling in HIV-1-Tat-mediated microglial activation. Based on these novel findings, it is evident that dysregulation of miR-124 is involved in the pathogenesis of HAND and that restoration of miR-124 could serve as an adjunctive treatment for dampening neuroinflammation associated with HAND.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEpigenetics Insights
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018

Fingerprint

Trans-Activators
DNA Methylation
Transcription
Epigenomics
HIV-1
Neurology
Viral Proteins
Chemical activation
Ports and harbors
Viruses
Restoration
Neurocognitive Disorders
Central Nervous System
Viremia
Proteins
Microglia
Virus Replication
Therapeutics
Down-Regulation

Keywords

  • DNA methylation
  • epigenetics
  • MECP2
  • microglia
  • miR-124
  • neuroinflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics

Cite this

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title = "Involvement of Epigenetic Promoter DNA Methylation of miR-124 in the Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders",
abstract = "Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in controlling viremia, the central nervous system (CNS) continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Transactivator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein. Based on the premise that cART does not impact levels of HIV-1 Tat, and since the CNS is inaccessible to the cART regimens, HIV-1-Tat-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated as an underlying mediator of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of HAND, however, remain less understood. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. The study published by Periyasamy et al provides new mechanistic insights into the role of HIV-1-Tat-mediated DNA methylation of miR-124 promoter in regulating microglial activation via the MECP2-STAT3 signaling axis. Furthermore, the authors have also reported that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells to HIV-1 Tat notably increased DNA methylation of primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters (with no change in primary miR-124-3), resulting in turn to downregulated expression of both primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 as well as mature miR-124 in mouse primary microglial cells. The authors also examined the involvement of MECP2-STAT3 signaling in HIV-1-Tat-mediated microglial activation. Based on these novel findings, it is evident that dysregulation of miR-124 is involved in the pathogenesis of HAND and that restoration of miR-124 could serve as an adjunctive treatment for dampening neuroinflammation associated with HAND.",
keywords = "DNA methylation, epigenetics, MECP2, microglia, miR-124, neuroinflammation",
author = "Buch, {Shilpa J} and Palsamy Periyasamy and Minglei Guo",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
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doi = "10.1177/2516865718806904",
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volume = "11",
journal = "Epigenetics Insights",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Involvement of Epigenetic Promoter DNA Methylation of miR-124 in the Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

AU - Buch, Shilpa J

AU - Periyasamy, Palsamy

AU - Guo, Minglei

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in controlling viremia, the central nervous system (CNS) continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Transactivator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein. Based on the premise that cART does not impact levels of HIV-1 Tat, and since the CNS is inaccessible to the cART regimens, HIV-1-Tat-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated as an underlying mediator of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of HAND, however, remain less understood. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. The study published by Periyasamy et al provides new mechanistic insights into the role of HIV-1-Tat-mediated DNA methylation of miR-124 promoter in regulating microglial activation via the MECP2-STAT3 signaling axis. Furthermore, the authors have also reported that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells to HIV-1 Tat notably increased DNA methylation of primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters (with no change in primary miR-124-3), resulting in turn to downregulated expression of both primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 as well as mature miR-124 in mouse primary microglial cells. The authors also examined the involvement of MECP2-STAT3 signaling in HIV-1-Tat-mediated microglial activation. Based on these novel findings, it is evident that dysregulation of miR-124 is involved in the pathogenesis of HAND and that restoration of miR-124 could serve as an adjunctive treatment for dampening neuroinflammation associated with HAND.

AB - Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in controlling viremia, the central nervous system (CNS) continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Transactivator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein. Based on the premise that cART does not impact levels of HIV-1 Tat, and since the CNS is inaccessible to the cART regimens, HIV-1-Tat-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated as an underlying mediator of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of HAND, however, remain less understood. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. The study published by Periyasamy et al provides new mechanistic insights into the role of HIV-1-Tat-mediated DNA methylation of miR-124 promoter in regulating microglial activation via the MECP2-STAT3 signaling axis. Furthermore, the authors have also reported that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells to HIV-1 Tat notably increased DNA methylation of primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters (with no change in primary miR-124-3), resulting in turn to downregulated expression of both primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 as well as mature miR-124 in mouse primary microglial cells. The authors also examined the involvement of MECP2-STAT3 signaling in HIV-1-Tat-mediated microglial activation. Based on these novel findings, it is evident that dysregulation of miR-124 is involved in the pathogenesis of HAND and that restoration of miR-124 could serve as an adjunctive treatment for dampening neuroinflammation associated with HAND.

KW - DNA methylation

KW - epigenetics

KW - MECP2

KW - microglia

KW - miR-124

KW - neuroinflammation

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U2 - 10.1177/2516865718806904

DO - 10.1177/2516865718806904

M3 - Comment/debate

VL - 11

JO - Epigenetics Insights

JF - Epigenetics Insights

SN - 2516-8657

ER -