Invasive fungal infection of the nose and paranasal sinuses occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients and is increasingly recognized as a complication of organ transplantation. We performed a retrospective chart review of 955 bone marrow and 749 liver transplant patients to identify risk factors, presenting signs and symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and successful management strategies. We report on five cases following bone marrow transplantation and one case following liver transplantation. Neutropenia is the single most important risk factor in the development of and recovery from invasive fungal sinusitis. Early diagnosis, combined with antifungal agents, hematopoietic growth factors, and aggressive surgical debridement is the most effective means of management.
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