Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express a photopigment, melanopsin that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input. Although relatively few in number, ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels. Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate than vertebrate photoreceptors. ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions. ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator and biological clock, and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle. ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body. ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina, providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light. Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries, current progress and directions for future investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-67
Number of pages10
JournalScience China Life Sciences
Volume53
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010

Fingerprint

Retinal Ganglion Cells
irradiance
Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Light Signal Transduction
Retina
Neurology
cells
Vertebrate Photoreceptor Cells
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
nervous system
retina
phototransduction
Cones
Clocks
Optics
Light
vertebrate
Genes
invertebrate
Invertebrate Photoreceptor Cells

Keywords

  • Circadian rhythms
  • Melanopsin
  • Pupillary light reflex
  • Retina
  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. / Pickard, Gary E; Sollars, Patricia J.

In: Science China Life Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 1, 01.02.2010, p. 58-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{4aca4d4563c74e7fa4a91bdd78b56acd,
title = "Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells",
abstract = "A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express a photopigment, melanopsin that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input. Although relatively few in number, ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels. Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate than vertebrate photoreceptors. ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions. ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator and biological clock, and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle. ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body. ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina, providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light. Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries, current progress and directions for future investigation.",
keywords = "Circadian rhythms, Melanopsin, Pupillary light reflex, Retina, Suprachiasmatic nucleus",
author = "Pickard, {Gary E} and Sollars, {Patricia J}",
year = "2010",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s11427-010-0024-5",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "53",
pages = "58--67",
journal = "Science China Life Sciences",
issn = "1674-7305",
publisher = "Science in China Press",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

AU - Pickard, Gary E

AU - Sollars, Patricia J

PY - 2010/2/1

Y1 - 2010/2/1

N2 - A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express a photopigment, melanopsin that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input. Although relatively few in number, ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels. Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate than vertebrate photoreceptors. ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions. ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator and biological clock, and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle. ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body. ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina, providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light. Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries, current progress and directions for future investigation.

AB - A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express a photopigment, melanopsin that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input. Although relatively few in number, ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels. Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate than vertebrate photoreceptors. ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions. ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator and biological clock, and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle. ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body. ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina, providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light. Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries, current progress and directions for future investigation.

KW - Circadian rhythms

KW - Melanopsin

KW - Pupillary light reflex

KW - Retina

KW - Suprachiasmatic nucleus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=76649131253&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=76649131253&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11427-010-0024-5

DO - 10.1007/s11427-010-0024-5

M3 - Review article

VL - 53

SP - 58

EP - 67

JO - Science China Life Sciences

JF - Science China Life Sciences

SN - 1674-7305

IS - 1

ER -