International pressure, domestic politics, and the dynamics of religious freedom: Evidence from Turkey

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Why do state policies toward religious minorities-shaped by long-term historical institutions-change? Although explanations based on secularization, religion, ideology, rational choice, and international context have advanced our knowledge of the origins of freedoms for religious minorities, they have not sufficiently addressed the interaction between international pressure and domestic actors. In an effort to develop a synthetic theory of religious freedoms, this article argues that the implementation of international norms on religious freedoms depends on the availability of relatively stronger domestic actors who support the reforms due to either their material interests or normative commitments. This argument is demonstrated by an in-depth study of liberal reforms for Christian minorities in Turkey in the 2000s.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-145
Number of pages19
JournalComparative Politics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science

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