The International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and International Sport Federations have banned and restricted the use of many stimulants including prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements. In addition to elite athletes, people of all ages use stimulants in attempts to improve athletic performance, alter body composition, and increase levels of energy. Here we introduce a seven-stage model designed to facilitate informed decision-making by individuals taking or thinking of taking stimulants for sport, health, and/or appearance reasons. We review for amphetamines, over-the counter sympathomimetics, and caffeine their performance-enhancing and performance-degrading effects, health benefits and mechanisms of action, medical side effects, and legal, ethical, safety, and financial implications.
- Athletic performance
- Ma Huang
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation