Infant formula preparation, handling, and related practices in the United States

Sara Beck Fein, Christina D Falci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To describe practices related to infant formula feeding: diluting and concentrating formula, mixing formula with warm tap water, sterilizing, storing prepared formula, heating in a microwave oven, putting the baby to bed with a bottle, and adding cereal and sweeteners to formula; to analyze characteristics related to compliance with recommended practices; and to examine the relation between formula handling and infant diarrhea. Subjects/design: Subjects were mothers who fed their infants formula (more than 1,000 subjects at each infant age). Data are from the US Food and Drug Administration's Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS), a national longitudinal survey with a nonprobability sample. Data were collected by mail, and formula practices were included at infant ages 2, 5, and 7 months. Statistical analyses performed: Logistic regression was conducted and percentages and odds ratios were calculated, adjusting for instruction in preparing formula from a health care professional, education, income, age, parity, work status, sad breast-feeding practices. Results: Failure to comply with recommendations was high for several practices with clear health implications; 33% of mothers mixed formula with warm tap water and up to 48% heated bottles in a microwave oven. Mothers of 2-month-old infants who received instruction from a health care professional and who breast-fed showed increased compliance, but few demographic characteristics, such as education, were related. Diarrhea increased with ambient holding of formula for older infants. Application: Advice from a health care professional can improve formula-handling behaviors. Dietitians and other health care professionals should provide information on proper preparation and handling of infant formula to all infant caregivers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1234-1240
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Volume99
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

Fingerprint

Infant Formula
infant formulas
health care workers
Delivery of Health Care
microwave ovens
Mothers
tap water
infants
Microwaves
bottles
compliance
Diarrhea
diarrhea
professional education
bottle feeding
Sweetening Agents
infant feeding
Professional Education
sterilizing
Nutritionists

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Infant formula preparation, handling, and related practices in the United States. / Fein, Sara Beck; Falci, Christina D.

In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 99, No. 10, 01.01.1999, p. 1234-1240.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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