Induction of A·T to G·C mutations by erroneous repair of depurinated DNA following estrogen treatment of the mammary gland of ACI rats

Paula C. Mailander, Jane L. Meza, Sheila Higginbotham, Dhrubajyoti Chakravarti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Evidence suggests that the genotoxic mechanism of estrogens (estrone/estradiol) in breast cancer involves their oxidation to 3,4-quinones and reaction with DNA to form depurinating N3Ade and N7Gua adducts. We examined whether estrogen genotoxicity is mutagenic in the mammary gland of the female ACI rat, a model for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Mutagenesis was studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras1 gene (exons 1-2), cloning in pUC18, transforming Escherichia coli, and sequencing the inserts in plasmids from individual colonies. Mammary glands of both estrogen-responsive (ACI and DA) and resistant (Sprague-Dawley) rats contained pre-existing mutations at frequencies of (39.8-58.8) × 10-5, the majority (62.5-100%) of which were A·T to G·C transitions. Estradiol-3,4-quinone (200 nmol) treatment of ACI rats caused rapid (6 h to 1 day) mutagenesis (frequency (83.3-156.1) × 10-5; A·T to G·C 70-73.3%). The estrogen-induced A·T to G·C mutations were detected as G·T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if N3Ade depurinations caused Gua misincorporations by erroneous repair. These heteroduplexes were identified by the T·G-DNA glycosylase (TDG) assay. TDG converts G·T heteroduplexes to G.abasic sites, rendering DNA templates refractory to PCR amplification. Consequently, A·T to G·C mutations present as G·T heteroduplexes in the DNA are eliminated from the spectra. TDG treatment of mammary DNA from estradiol-3,4-quinone-treated ACI rats brought A·T to G·C mutations down to pre-existing frequencies. Our results demonstrate that treatment with estradiol-3,4-quinone, an important metabolite of estrogens, produced A·T to G·C mutations in the DNA of the mammary gland of ACI rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-215
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume101
Issue number4-5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2006

Fingerprint

Inbred ACI Rats
Human Mammary Glands
DNA Repair
Rats
Estrogens
Repair
DNA Glycosylases
Mutation
DNA
Mutagenesis
Amplification
Therapeutics
Dihydrotachysterol
Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes
Breast Neoplasms
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Quinones
Estrone
Cloning
Mutation Rate

Keywords

  • ACI rat
  • Erroneous repair
  • Estrogen mutagenesis
  • Mammary gland

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Induction of A·T to G·C mutations by erroneous repair of depurinated DNA following estrogen treatment of the mammary gland of ACI rats. / Mailander, Paula C.; Meza, Jane L.; Higginbotham, Sheila; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti.

In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 101, No. 4-5, 01.11.2006, p. 204-215.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Evidence suggests that the genotoxic mechanism of estrogens (estrone/estradiol) in breast cancer involves their oxidation to 3,4-quinones and reaction with DNA to form depurinating N3Ade and N7Gua adducts. We examined whether estrogen genotoxicity is mutagenic in the mammary gland of the female ACI rat, a model for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Mutagenesis was studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras1 gene (exons 1-2), cloning in pUC18, transforming Escherichia coli, and sequencing the inserts in plasmids from individual colonies. Mammary glands of both estrogen-responsive (ACI and DA) and resistant (Sprague-Dawley) rats contained pre-existing mutations at frequencies of (39.8-58.8) × 10-5, the majority (62.5-100{\%}) of which were A·T to G·C transitions. Estradiol-3,4-quinone (200 nmol) treatment of ACI rats caused rapid (6 h to 1 day) mutagenesis (frequency (83.3-156.1) × 10-5; A·T to G·C 70-73.3{\%}). The estrogen-induced A·T to G·C mutations were detected as G·T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if N3Ade depurinations caused Gua misincorporations by erroneous repair. These heteroduplexes were identified by the T·G-DNA glycosylase (TDG) assay. TDG converts G·T heteroduplexes to G.abasic sites, rendering DNA templates refractory to PCR amplification. Consequently, A·T to G·C mutations present as G·T heteroduplexes in the DNA are eliminated from the spectra. TDG treatment of mammary DNA from estradiol-3,4-quinone-treated ACI rats brought A·T to G·C mutations down to pre-existing frequencies. Our results demonstrate that treatment with estradiol-3,4-quinone, an important metabolite of estrogens, produced A·T to G·C mutations in the DNA of the mammary gland of ACI rats.",
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AB - Evidence suggests that the genotoxic mechanism of estrogens (estrone/estradiol) in breast cancer involves their oxidation to 3,4-quinones and reaction with DNA to form depurinating N3Ade and N7Gua adducts. We examined whether estrogen genotoxicity is mutagenic in the mammary gland of the female ACI rat, a model for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Mutagenesis was studied by PCR amplification of the H-ras1 gene (exons 1-2), cloning in pUC18, transforming Escherichia coli, and sequencing the inserts in plasmids from individual colonies. Mammary glands of both estrogen-responsive (ACI and DA) and resistant (Sprague-Dawley) rats contained pre-existing mutations at frequencies of (39.8-58.8) × 10-5, the majority (62.5-100%) of which were A·T to G·C transitions. Estradiol-3,4-quinone (200 nmol) treatment of ACI rats caused rapid (6 h to 1 day) mutagenesis (frequency (83.3-156.1) × 10-5; A·T to G·C 70-73.3%). The estrogen-induced A·T to G·C mutations were detected as G·T heteroduplexes, as would be expected if N3Ade depurinations caused Gua misincorporations by erroneous repair. These heteroduplexes were identified by the T·G-DNA glycosylase (TDG) assay. TDG converts G·T heteroduplexes to G.abasic sites, rendering DNA templates refractory to PCR amplification. Consequently, A·T to G·C mutations present as G·T heteroduplexes in the DNA are eliminated from the spectra. TDG treatment of mammary DNA from estradiol-3,4-quinone-treated ACI rats brought A·T to G·C mutations down to pre-existing frequencies. Our results demonstrate that treatment with estradiol-3,4-quinone, an important metabolite of estrogens, produced A·T to G·C mutations in the DNA of the mammary gland of ACI rats.

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