In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

Yue Yang, Youngki Park, David A. Cassada, Daniel D Snow, Douglas G. Rogers, Jiyoung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ∼70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0%, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6. months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6. month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1560-1564
Number of pages5
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume49
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

Fingerprint

Nostoc commune
Spirulina
Spirulina platensis
safety assessment
Cyanobacteria
microcystins
Safety
Nutrition
Alanine Transaminase
alanine transaminase
Liver
microcystin-LR
Diet
Plasmas
liver
Herbal Medicine
Poisons
herbal medicines
mice
Hep G2 Cells

Keywords

  • Blue-green algae
  • Mouse
  • Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing
  • Safety
  • Spirulina platensis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

Cite this

In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis. / Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 49, No. 7, 01.07.2011, p. 1560-1564.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yang, Yue ; Park, Youngki ; Cassada, David A. ; Snow, Daniel D ; Rogers, Douglas G. ; Lee, Jiyoung. / In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2011 ; Vol. 49, No. 7. pp. 1560-1564.
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