In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks

Gurdas S. Sandhu, H. Christopher Frey, Shannon L Bartelt-Hunt, Elizabeth Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901km) and 47h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25mph, 40.2kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50mph, 40.2 to 80.4kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50mph, 80.4kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2mpg (0.98-1.4kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)557-565
Number of pages9
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume92
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

refuse
hydrocarbon
diesel
rate
GPS
filter
cruising
speed

Keywords

  • Diesel refuse truck
  • Duty cycle
  • Exhaust emissions
  • MOVES
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks. / Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Jones, Elizabeth.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 92, 01.01.2014, p. 557-565.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sandhu, Gurdas S. ; Frey, H. Christopher ; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L ; Jones, Elizabeth. / In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2014 ; Vol. 92. pp. 557-565.
@article{db79402cddd843c78f33b6e89896f083,
title = "In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks",
abstract = "Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901km) and 47h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25mph, 40.2kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50mph, 40.2 to 80.4kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50mph, 80.4kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2mpg (0.98-1.4kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.",
keywords = "Diesel refuse truck, Duty cycle, Exhaust emissions, MOVES, Nitrogen oxides, Particulate matter",
author = "Sandhu, {Gurdas S.} and Frey, {H. Christopher} and Bartelt-Hunt, {Shannon L} and Elizabeth Jones",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.036",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "92",
pages = "557--565",
journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
issn = "1352-2310",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks

AU - Sandhu, Gurdas S.

AU - Frey, H. Christopher

AU - Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

AU - Jones, Elizabeth

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901km) and 47h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25mph, 40.2kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50mph, 40.2 to 80.4kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50mph, 80.4kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2mpg (0.98-1.4kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

AB - Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901km) and 47h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25mph, 40.2kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50mph, 40.2 to 80.4kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50mph, 80.4kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2mpg (0.98-1.4kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

KW - Diesel refuse truck

KW - Duty cycle

KW - Exhaust emissions

KW - MOVES

KW - Nitrogen oxides

KW - Particulate matter

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84901001305&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84901001305&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.036

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.036

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 557

EP - 565

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

ER -