Improved synthesis of graphene oxide

Daniela C. Marcano, Dmitry V. Kosynkin, Jacob M. Berlin, Alexander Sinitskii, Zhengzong Sun, Alexander Slesarev, Lawrence B. Alemany, Wei Lu, James M. Tour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6051 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO4, NaNO3,H 2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4806-4814
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Volume4
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 24 2010

Fingerprint

Graphite
Oxides
Graphene
graphene
oxides
synthesis
hydrazine
Poisons
Hydrazine
hydrazines
gas temperature
chambers
Gases
Oxidation
preparation
oxidation
electrical resistivity

Keywords

  • Carbon
  • Graphene
  • Graphite
  • Nanostructure
  • Oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Marcano, D. C., Kosynkin, D. V., Berlin, J. M., Sinitskii, A., Sun, Z., Slesarev, A., ... Tour, J. M. (2010). Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano, 4(8), 4806-4814. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368

Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. / Marcano, Daniela C.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Berlin, Jacob M.; Sinitskii, Alexander; Sun, Zhengzong; Slesarev, Alexander; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Lu, Wei; Tour, James M.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 4, No. 8, 24.08.2010, p. 4806-4814.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marcano, DC, Kosynkin, DV, Berlin, JM, Sinitskii, A, Sun, Z, Slesarev, A, Alemany, LB, Lu, W & Tour, JM 2010, 'Improved synthesis of graphene oxide', ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 4806-4814. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368
Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A et al. Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano. 2010 Aug 24;4(8):4806-4814. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368
Marcano, Daniela C. ; Kosynkin, Dmitry V. ; Berlin, Jacob M. ; Sinitskii, Alexander ; Sun, Zhengzong ; Slesarev, Alexander ; Alemany, Lawrence B. ; Lu, Wei ; Tour, James M. / Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. In: ACS Nano. 2010 ; Vol. 4, No. 8. pp. 4806-4814.
@article{499beae392e648c4a6caa3dd5ade1733,
title = "Improved synthesis of graphene oxide",
abstract = "An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO4, NaNO3,H 2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.",
keywords = "Carbon, Graphene, Graphite, Nanostructure, Oxide",
author = "Marcano, {Daniela C.} and Kosynkin, {Dmitry V.} and Berlin, {Jacob M.} and Alexander Sinitskii and Zhengzong Sun and Alexander Slesarev and Alemany, {Lawrence B.} and Wei Lu and Tour, {James M.}",
year = "2010",
month = "8",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1021/nn1006368",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "4",
pages = "4806--4814",
journal = "ACS Nano",
issn = "1936-0851",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improved synthesis of graphene oxide

AU - Marcano, Daniela C.

AU - Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

AU - Berlin, Jacob M.

AU - Sinitskii, Alexander

AU - Sun, Zhengzong

AU - Slesarev, Alexander

AU - Alemany, Lawrence B.

AU - Lu, Wei

AU - Tour, James M.

PY - 2010/8/24

Y1 - 2010/8/24

N2 - An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO4, NaNO3,H 2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.

AB - An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO4, NaNO3,H 2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.

KW - Carbon

KW - Graphene

KW - Graphite

KW - Nanostructure

KW - Oxide

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650092372&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650092372&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/nn1006368

DO - 10.1021/nn1006368

M3 - Article

C2 - 20731455

AN - SCOPUS:78650092372

VL - 4

SP - 4806

EP - 4814

JO - ACS Nano

JF - ACS Nano

SN - 1936-0851

IS - 8

ER -