Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Sarah G. Kennedy, Jordan J. Smith, Philip J. Morgan, Louisa R. Peralta, Toni A. Hilland, Narelle Eather, Chris Lonsdale, Anthony D. Okely, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Jo Salmon, Deborah L. Dewar, Paul A Estabrooks, Emma Pollock, Tara L. Finn, David R. Lubans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 dIwkj1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. Methods: The ''Resistance Training for Teens'' intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1% girls; 14.1 T 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). Results: For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (j1.4 cm; 95% CI, j4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students whowere overweight/obese at baseline (j0.55 kgImj2; 95% CI, j1.01 toj0.08). Conclusions: The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-72
Number of pages11
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Resistance Training
Randomized Controlled Trials
Self Efficacy
Confidence Intervals
Body Mass Index
Exercise
Students
Lunch
Motivation
Linear Models
Guidelines
Muscles

Keywords

  • ADOLESCENT
  • MUSCULAR FITNESS
  • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • SKILL COMPETENCY

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Kennedy, S. G., Smith, J. J., Morgan, P. J., Peralta, L. R., Hilland, T. A., Eather, N., ... Lubans, D. R. (2018). Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 50(1), 62-72. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001410

Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. / Kennedy, Sarah G.; Smith, Jordan J.; Morgan, Philip J.; Peralta, Louisa R.; Hilland, Toni A.; Eather, Narelle; Lonsdale, Chris; Okely, Anthony D.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Salmon, Jo; Dewar, Deborah L.; Estabrooks, Paul A; Pollock, Emma; Finn, Tara L.; Lubans, David R.

In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, Vol. 50, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 62-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kennedy, SG, Smith, JJ, Morgan, PJ, Peralta, LR, Hilland, TA, Eather, N, Lonsdale, C, Okely, AD, Plotnikoff, RC, Salmon, J, Dewar, DL, Estabrooks, PA, Pollock, E, Finn, TL & Lubans, DR 2018, 'Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial', Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 62-72. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001410
Kennedy, Sarah G. ; Smith, Jordan J. ; Morgan, Philip J. ; Peralta, Louisa R. ; Hilland, Toni A. ; Eather, Narelle ; Lonsdale, Chris ; Okely, Anthony D. ; Plotnikoff, Ronald C. ; Salmon, Jo ; Dewar, Deborah L. ; Estabrooks, Paul A ; Pollock, Emma ; Finn, Tara L. ; Lubans, David R. / Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2018 ; Vol. 50, No. 1. pp. 62-72.
@article{a3558d999ddb4e7a89effc3d653ff8c3,
title = "Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial",
abstract = "Purpose: Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 dIwkj1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. Methods: The ''Resistance Training for Teens'' intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1{\%} girls; 14.1 T 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). Results: For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (j1.4 cm; 95{\%} CI, j4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students whowere overweight/obese at baseline (j0.55 kgImj2; 95{\%} CI, j1.01 toj0.08). Conclusions: The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.",
keywords = "ADOLESCENT, MUSCULAR FITNESS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SKILL COMPETENCY",
author = "Kennedy, {Sarah G.} and Smith, {Jordan J.} and Morgan, {Philip J.} and Peralta, {Louisa R.} and Hilland, {Toni A.} and Narelle Eather and Chris Lonsdale and Okely, {Anthony D.} and Plotnikoff, {Ronald C.} and Jo Salmon and Dewar, {Deborah L.} and Estabrooks, {Paul A} and Emma Pollock and Finn, {Tara L.} and Lubans, {David R.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1249/MSS.0000000000001410",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "50",
pages = "62--72",
journal = "Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools

T2 - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

AU - Kennedy, Sarah G.

AU - Smith, Jordan J.

AU - Morgan, Philip J.

AU - Peralta, Louisa R.

AU - Hilland, Toni A.

AU - Eather, Narelle

AU - Lonsdale, Chris

AU - Okely, Anthony D.

AU - Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

AU - Salmon, Jo

AU - Dewar, Deborah L.

AU - Estabrooks, Paul A

AU - Pollock, Emma

AU - Finn, Tara L.

AU - Lubans, David R.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Purpose: Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 dIwkj1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. Methods: The ''Resistance Training for Teens'' intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1% girls; 14.1 T 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). Results: For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (j1.4 cm; 95% CI, j4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students whowere overweight/obese at baseline (j0.55 kgImj2; 95% CI, j1.01 toj0.08). Conclusions: The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.

AB - Purpose: Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 dIwkj1. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. Methods: The ''Resistance Training for Teens'' intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1% girls; 14.1 T 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). Results: For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (j1.4 cm; 95% CI, j4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students whowere overweight/obese at baseline (j0.55 kgImj2; 95% CI, j1.01 toj0.08). Conclusions: The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.

KW - ADOLESCENT

KW - MUSCULAR FITNESS

KW - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

KW - PHYSICAL EDUCATION

KW - SKILL COMPETENCY

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85038220149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85038220149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001410

DO - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001410

M3 - Article

C2 - 29251687

AN - SCOPUS:85038220149

VL - 50

SP - 62

EP - 72

JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

JF - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 1

ER -