Impact of local heating and cooling on skeletal muscle transcriptional response related to myogenesis and proteolysis

Roksana B. Zak, B. M. Hassenstab, L. K. Zuehlke, M. W.S. Heesch, R. J. Shute, T. L. Laursen, D. T. LaSalle, D. R. Slivka

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    4 Scopus citations


    Purpose: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. Methods: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8–12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. Results: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0.05). Myostatin, MYF5, and atrogin-1 mRNA decreased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0.05). Myogenin, MRF4, and CASP3 mRNA were higher in the hot condition, compared to the cold (p < 0.05). PAX7 mRNA was lower in the hot compared to cold condition (p = 0.041). FOXO3 mRNA was higher in the cold compared to hot condition (p = 0.037). AKT1 and AKT2 were unaffected by either exercise or temperature. Femoral artery blood flow volume was higher in the hot (375.2 ± 41.2 ml min− 1), compared to the cold condition (263.5 ± 23.9 ml min− 1), p = 0.01. Tissue oxygen saturation was higher in the hot (71.7 ± 4.8%) than cold condition (55.3 ± 5.0%). Conclusion: These results suggest an impaired muscle growth response with local cold application compared to local heat application.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)101-109
    Number of pages9
    JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018



    • Cold
    • Hot
    • Muscle breakdown
    • Muscle growth
    • Resistance exercise
    • Temperature

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Physiology (medical)

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