79 Scopus citations


Raising pigs and poultry indoors in large confinement facilities is increasingly common in U.S. agriculture. High endotoxin, ammonia, and dust levels contribute to acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in people who work in these settings. Respiratory conditions observed include the asthma-like syndrome, bronchitis, and asthma exacerbation. Organic dust toxic syndrome also has been described. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is found in a small number of those who raise poultry. Hog confinement workers are at risk of hydrogen sulfide poisoning. These and other conditions seen in confinement workers are described, and health management procedures are outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-350
Number of pages14
JournalOccupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1999


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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