Human carcinogenic risk evaluation: An alternative approach to the two-year rodent bioassay

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An approach to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk resulting from exposure to a given chemical is presented in place of a reliance on two-year rodent bioassays. An emphasis is placed on evaluation of the potential DNA reactivity or increased cell proliferation that can be produced by a chemical. The special cases of immunosuppressive and estrogenic chemicals are considered. These evaluations are proposed to involve a combination of in vitro assays, computerized models, and short-term (up to 13 weeks) bioassays in rodents. The emphasis is on mechanistic understanding and evaluation of the dose response and relevance to humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-229
Number of pages5
JournalToxicological Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2004



  • Cell proliferation
  • DNA reactive
  • Estrogen
  • Immunosuppressive
  • Mechanism
  • Non-genotoxic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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