HIV-1 Tat Toxin

Shilpa J Buch, Honghong Yao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the findings and the current understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying Tat-induced toxicity. Tat is one of the early viral proteins that is expressed during virus replication and is known to play a crucial role in promoting virus replication by transactivating the promoter region of the virus. To date, there is no effective treatment that blocks Tat activity. Both cell culture systems and murine animal models have provided valuable tools to explore the role of HIV-1 Tat in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurodegenerative disease (HAND). In resource-limiting settings, drug abuse, lack of availability of antiretrovirals and perinatal transmission of HIV-1 are major causes of AIDS in children. In such a setting, Tat toxicity could have serious deleterious effects in both the developing fetus and the newborn. HIV Tat has diverse but often deleterious effects on various cell types of the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, it can activate monocytes, astrocytes and microglia, which, in turn, leads to a "cytokine/chemokine storm" in the CNS. HIV-1 Tat not only exerts direct toxicity on the neurons, but can also indirectly lead to neuronal apoptosis, via the mediators released from other neighboring cells. These complex cascades of events could be self-propelling, thereby perpetuating a continuum of inflammatory responses in the brain of HIV-1-infected individuals. © 2011

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationReproductive and Developmental Toxicology
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages773-780
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9780123820327
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011

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HIV-1
Central Nervous System
Virus Replication
HIV
Microglia
Viral Proteins
Chemokines
Genetic Promoter Regions
Astrocytes
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Substance-Related Disorders
Monocytes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Fetus
Animal Models
Cell Culture Techniques
Newborn Infant
Apoptosis
Cytokines
Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Buch, S. J., & Yao, H. (2011). HIV-1 Tat Toxin. In Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology (pp. 773-780). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382032-7.10057-8

HIV-1 Tat Toxin. / Buch, Shilpa J; Yao, Honghong.

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Elsevier Inc., 2011. p. 773-780.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Buch, SJ & Yao, H 2011, HIV-1 Tat Toxin. in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Elsevier Inc., pp. 773-780. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382032-7.10057-8
Buch SJ, Yao H. HIV-1 Tat Toxin. In Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Elsevier Inc. 2011. p. 773-780 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382032-7.10057-8
Buch, Shilpa J ; Yao, Honghong. / HIV-1 Tat Toxin. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. Elsevier Inc., 2011. pp. 773-780
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