HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophages regulate astrocyte CXCL8 production through IL-1β and TNF-α

Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase R

Jialin C Zheng, Yunlong Huang, Kang Tang, Min Cui, Douglas F Niemann, Alicia Lopez, Susan Morgello, Shengdi Chen

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43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Monocyte infiltration is an important pathogenic event in human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) associated dementia (HAD). CXCL8 (Interleukin 8, IL-8), a CXC chemokine that elicits chemotaxis of neutrophils, has recently been found to recruit monocytes or synergistically enhance CCL2-mediated monocyte migration. In this report, we demonstrate CXCL8 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAD patients are higher than HIV-1 seropositive patients without neurological impairment. The underlying mechanisms regulating CXCL8 production during disease are not completely understood. We investigated the role of HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury in HAD, in regulating astrocyte CXCL8 production. Immune-activated and HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced production of CXCL8 by human astrocytes. This CXCL8 production was dependent on MDM IL-1β and TNF-α production following viral and immune activation. CXCL8 production was reduced by inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Moreover, prolonged IL-1β or TNF-α treatment activated double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Inhibition of PKR prevented elevated CXCL8 production in astrocytes. We conclude that IL-1β and TNF-α, produced from HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, are critical in astrocyte CXCL8 production. Multiple protein kinases, including p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and PKR, participate in the inflammatory response of astrocytes. These observations will help to identify effective therapeutic strategies to reduce high-levels of CXCL8-mediated CNS inflammation during HAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-110
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Volume200
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 30 2008

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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Interleukin-1
Astrocytes
HIV-1
Macrophages
Dementia
eIF-2 Kinase
Monocytes
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
CXC Chemokines
Virus Activation
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Double-Stranded RNA
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Chemotaxis
Conditioned Culture Medium
Interleukin-8
Cerebrospinal Fluid

Keywords

  • Astrocyte
  • CXCL8
  • HIV-1 associated dementia
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

@article{50f7ac58d42e415bb1c52ce7bd5cca3f,
title = "HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophages regulate astrocyte CXCL8 production through IL-1β and TNF-α: Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase R",
abstract = "Monocyte infiltration is an important pathogenic event in human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) associated dementia (HAD). CXCL8 (Interleukin 8, IL-8), a CXC chemokine that elicits chemotaxis of neutrophils, has recently been found to recruit monocytes or synergistically enhance CCL2-mediated monocyte migration. In this report, we demonstrate CXCL8 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAD patients are higher than HIV-1 seropositive patients without neurological impairment. The underlying mechanisms regulating CXCL8 production during disease are not completely understood. We investigated the role of HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury in HAD, in regulating astrocyte CXCL8 production. Immune-activated and HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced production of CXCL8 by human astrocytes. This CXCL8 production was dependent on MDM IL-1β and TNF-α production following viral and immune activation. CXCL8 production was reduced by inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Moreover, prolonged IL-1β or TNF-α treatment activated double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Inhibition of PKR prevented elevated CXCL8 production in astrocytes. We conclude that IL-1β and TNF-α, produced from HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, are critical in astrocyte CXCL8 production. Multiple protein kinases, including p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and PKR, participate in the inflammatory response of astrocytes. These observations will help to identify effective therapeutic strategies to reduce high-levels of CXCL8-mediated CNS inflammation during HAD.",
keywords = "Astrocyte, CXCL8, HIV-1 associated dementia, Inflammation, Macrophage",
author = "Zheng, {Jialin C} and Yunlong Huang and Kang Tang and Min Cui and Niemann, {Douglas F} and Alicia Lopez and Susan Morgello and Shengdi Chen",
year = "2008",
month = "8",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.06.015",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "200",
pages = "100--110",
journal = "Journal of Neuroimmunology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophages regulate astrocyte CXCL8 production through IL-1β and TNF-α

T2 - Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase R

AU - Zheng, Jialin C

AU - Huang, Yunlong

AU - Tang, Kang

AU - Cui, Min

AU - Niemann, Douglas F

AU - Lopez, Alicia

AU - Morgello, Susan

AU - Chen, Shengdi

PY - 2008/8/30

Y1 - 2008/8/30

N2 - Monocyte infiltration is an important pathogenic event in human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) associated dementia (HAD). CXCL8 (Interleukin 8, IL-8), a CXC chemokine that elicits chemotaxis of neutrophils, has recently been found to recruit monocytes or synergistically enhance CCL2-mediated monocyte migration. In this report, we demonstrate CXCL8 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAD patients are higher than HIV-1 seropositive patients without neurological impairment. The underlying mechanisms regulating CXCL8 production during disease are not completely understood. We investigated the role of HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury in HAD, in regulating astrocyte CXCL8 production. Immune-activated and HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced production of CXCL8 by human astrocytes. This CXCL8 production was dependent on MDM IL-1β and TNF-α production following viral and immune activation. CXCL8 production was reduced by inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Moreover, prolonged IL-1β or TNF-α treatment activated double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Inhibition of PKR prevented elevated CXCL8 production in astrocytes. We conclude that IL-1β and TNF-α, produced from HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, are critical in astrocyte CXCL8 production. Multiple protein kinases, including p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and PKR, participate in the inflammatory response of astrocytes. These observations will help to identify effective therapeutic strategies to reduce high-levels of CXCL8-mediated CNS inflammation during HAD.

AB - Monocyte infiltration is an important pathogenic event in human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) associated dementia (HAD). CXCL8 (Interleukin 8, IL-8), a CXC chemokine that elicits chemotaxis of neutrophils, has recently been found to recruit monocytes or synergistically enhance CCL2-mediated monocyte migration. In this report, we demonstrate CXCL8 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAD patients are higher than HIV-1 seropositive patients without neurological impairment. The underlying mechanisms regulating CXCL8 production during disease are not completely understood. We investigated the role of HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury in HAD, in regulating astrocyte CXCL8 production. Immune-activated and HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced production of CXCL8 by human astrocytes. This CXCL8 production was dependent on MDM IL-1β and TNF-α production following viral and immune activation. CXCL8 production was reduced by inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Moreover, prolonged IL-1β or TNF-α treatment activated double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Inhibition of PKR prevented elevated CXCL8 production in astrocytes. We conclude that IL-1β and TNF-α, produced from HIV-1-infected and immune-competent macrophages, are critical in astrocyte CXCL8 production. Multiple protein kinases, including p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and PKR, participate in the inflammatory response of astrocytes. These observations will help to identify effective therapeutic strategies to reduce high-levels of CXCL8-mediated CNS inflammation during HAD.

KW - Astrocyte

KW - CXCL8

KW - HIV-1 associated dementia

KW - Inflammation

KW - Macrophage

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